This study aimed to investigate knowledge and perceptions of HIV, and the use of health services among the general populations of four ethnic communities in Sydney that have a high prevalence of HIV infection: Thai, Cambodian, Sudanese and Ethiopian. The study investigated people’s knowledge and use of health services in Sydney; patterns of movement between Australia and their country of birth; knowledge about and perceptions of HIV, including HIV transmission and living with HIV; and how people living with HIV are perceived within these four communities, including their experiences of stigma and discrimination. Data collection was completed in 2007. The project was completed in 2008.