Shyam Mishra

Shyam Mishra

Postgraduate Research Student
School of Optometry and Vision Science

Name: Shyam Kumar Mishra (Baishnab)

Research Title: Development of Biologically Responsive Biomaterials Against Bacterial Colonisation

Supervisors: Prof. Mark Willcox, Dr. Edgar Hoe Hon Wong, Dr. Alex Hui

Email Address:



Globally, there has been rapid emergence of antimicrobial resistance, contributing to 700,000 patient deaths every year. This situation is expected to worsen in the future with 10 million deaths per year at a cumulative global cost of $100 trillion estimated by 2050. In 2017, the World Health Organization (WHO) published a list of antibiotic-resistant “priority pathogens” for research and development of new antibiotics including the “ESKAPE” pathogens: carbapenem resistant Acinetobacter baumannii, multi-drug resistant Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Enterobacteriaceae and others. These microbes are often associated with device-associated infections (DAIs) and are non-responsive to traditional antibiotics.

In medical science, biomaterials are used extensively to augment or restore function, and replace tissue. Antimicrobial coatings of device surfaces are required to prevent bacterial colonisation and DAIs. To address this, one of the strategies is the use of cationic antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) as coatings for biomaterials. However, AMPs are susceptible to proteases found in blood or other body fluids. Therefore, development of mimetics of AMPs resistant to proteases as novel anti-infective agents with increased bioavailability is a promising tool in the scientific arena.

Peptoids are non-natural mimics of polypeptides containing poly-N-substituted glycine residues. My research focuses on immobilisation of peptoids on surfaces, and characterizing their mode of action in preventing microbial colonisation on biomaterials. This research will also explore synergy between these peptoids and available antibiotics to combat extensively drug resistant bacteria.


Shyam completed his MS in Medical Laboratory Sciences Microbiology from the Institute of Medicine, Nepal in 2009. For the next ten years he held a lecturing position at the Institute and during this time had the opportunity to work as a foreign guest researcher in the stem cell biology laboratory of Ehime University in Japan. In 2019, Shyam received the UNSW Scientia PhD scholarship and started his interdisciplinary postgraduate journey under the supervision of Professor Mark Willcox, Dr. Edgar Hoe Hon Wong and Dr. Alex Hui. Shyam’s PhD project focuses on different aspects of peptoids, particularly their antimicrobial activity against selected microbes.






PhD Candidate

University of New South Wales, Australia


MSc MLT Microbiology

Institute of Medicine (IOM),

Tribhuvan University (TU), Nepal


Bachelor in Medical Laboratory Technology (BMLT)




Journal Articles

  1. Yadav SK, Bhujel R, Hamal P, Mishra SK, Sharma S, Sherchand JB. Burden of Multidrug-Resistant Acinetobacter baumannii Infection in Hospitalized Patients in a Tertiary Care Hospital of Nepal. Infection and Drug Resistance 2020;13:725-732

  1. Mandal DK, Sah SK, Mishra SK, Sharma S, Kattel HP, Pandit S, Yadav PK, Laghu U, Lama R, Sah NP, Sherchand JB, Parajuli K, Bastola A, Pun SB, Rijal BP, Pokharel BM. Carriage of Extended-spectrum-b-lactamase- and AmpC-b-lactamase-producing Enterobacteriaceae (ESBL-PE) in healthy community and outpatient department (OPD) patients in Nepal. Canadian Journal of Infectious Diseases and Medical Microbiology 2020

  1. Ansari S, Jha RK, Mishra SK, Tiwari BR, Asaad AM. Recent advances in Staphylococcus aureus infection: focus on vaccine development. Infection and Drug Resistance 2019; 12:1243-55.

  1. Sartelli M, Klugar Y, Ansaloni L, Carlet J, …….. Mishra SK, ………Catena F. A global declaration on appropriate use of antimicrobial agents across the surgical pathway. Surgical Infections 2017;18(8):846-53.

  1. Sartelli M, Labricciosa FM, Barbadora P, Pagani L,….. Mishra SK, …….Catena F. The Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery: defining a model for antimicrobial stewardship—results from an international cross-sectional survey. World Journal of Emergency Surgery 2017;12(34):1-11. DOI: 10.1186/s13017-017-0145-2.

  1. Sah R, Khadka S, Shah DS, Adhikari M, Shrestha N, Kattel HP, Sharma S, Mishra SK, Parajuli K, Sherchand JB, Shah NP, Pokharel BM, Rijal B. Vancomycin resistant Enterococcus faecalis causing diarrhea in renal transplant patient. International Educational Applied Scientific Journal 2017;2:9

  1. Khadka S, Sherchand JB, Pokhrel BM, Parajuli K, Mishra SK, Sharma S, Shah N, Kattel HP, Dhital S, Khatiwada S, Parajuli N, Pradhan M, Rijal BP. Isolation, speciation and antifungal susceptibility testing of Candida isolates from various clinical specimens at a tertiary care hospital, Nepal. BMC Research Notes 2017;10:218. DOI 10.1186/s13104-017-2547-3.

  1. Parajuli NP, Acharya SP, Mishra SK, Parajuli K, Rijal BP, Pokhrel BM. High burden of antimicrobial resistance among gram negative bacteria causing healthcare associated infections in a critical care unit of Nepal. Antimicrobial Resistance and Infection Control 2017; 6:67. DOI: 10.1186/s13756-017-0222-z

  1. Dhital S, Sherchand JB, Pokharel BM, Parajuli K, Mishra SK, Sharma S, Kattel HP, Khadka HP, Khadka S, Khatiwada S, Rijal B. Antimicrobial susceptibility pattern of Shigella spp. isolated from children under 5 years of age attending tertiary care hospitals, Nepal along with first finding of ESBL-production. BMC Research Notes 2017;10:192. DOI: 10.1186/s13104-017-2512-1

  1. Parajuli NP, Acharya SP, Dahal S, Singh JP, Mishra SK, Kattel HP, Rijal BP, Pokhrel BM. Epidemiology of device-associated infections in an intensive care unit of a teaching hospital in Nepal: A prospective surveillance study from a developing country. American Journal of Infection Control 2017. DOI:

  1. Dhital S, Sherchand JB, Pokhrel BM, Parajuli K, Shah N, Mishra SK, Sharma S, Kattel HP, Khadka S, Khatiwada S, Parajuli N, Rijal B. Molecular epidemiology of Rotavirus causing diarrhea among children less than five years of age visiting national level children hospitals, Nepal. BMC Pediatrics 2017.doi:10.1186/s12887-017-0858-0.

  1. Khadka S, Sherchand JB, Pokharel DB, Pokhrel BM, Mishra SK, Dhital S, Rijal BP. Clinicomycological Characterization of Superficial Mycoses from a Tertiary Care Hospital in Nepal. Dermatology Research and Practice 2016. doi:10.1155/2016/9509705 (

  1. Moriguchi T, Kaneumi S, Takeda S, Enomoto K, Mishra SK, Miki T, Koshimizu U, Kitamura H, Kondo T. Ecrg4 contributes to the antiglioma immunosurveillance through type I interferon signaling. Oncoimmunology 2016.

  1. Khadka S, Regmi P, Giri S, Shah PK, Mishra SK. Identification of Candida species using CHROM agar. International Journal of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences 2016;1(3):10-3. (

  1. Pokhrel RH, Aung MS, Thapa B, Chaudhary R, Mishra SK, Kawaguchiya M, Urushibara N, Kobayashi N. Detection of ST772 Panton-Valentine leukocidin-positive methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (Bengal Bay clone) and ST22 S. aureus isolates with a genetic variant of elastin binding protein in Nepal. New Microbes and New Infections 2016:11:20-7.

  1. Tada T, Miyoshi-Akiyama T, Shimada K, Dahal RK., Mishra SK, Ohara H, Kirikae T, Pokhrel BM. A Novel 6′-N-Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase, AAC(6′)-Ial, from a Clinical Isolate of Serratia marcescens. Microbial Drug Resistance 2016 Mar;22(2):103-8. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2015.0126. Epub 2015 Aug 13.

  1. Mishra SK, Shrestha R, Rijal BP, Pokhrel BM. The bad, the ugly and the demon: A tale of extensively drug-resistant, extended-spectrum beta-lactamase- and metallo-beta-lactamase-producing superbugs associated with nosocomial pneumonia. Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease 2015:5(1):71-6.

  1. Mishra SK, Basukala P, Basukala O, Parajuli K, Pokhrel BM, Rijal BP. Detection of Biofilm Production and Antibiotic Resistance Pattern in Clinical Isolates from Indwelling Medical Devices. Current Microbiology 2015;70:128-34.

  1. Shrestha B, Shrestha S, Mishra SK, Kattel HP, Tada T, Ohara H, Kirikae T, Rijal BP, Sherchand JB, Pokhrel BM. Phenotypic characterization of multidrug-resistant Escherichia coli with special reference to extended-spectrum-beta-lactamases and metallo-beta-lactamases in a tertiary care center. Journal of Nepal Medical Association 2015 Apr-Jun;53(198):89-95.

  1. Mishra SK, Kattel H, Pokhrel BM, Rijal BP. High prevalence of extended-spectrum beta-lactamase-producing respiratory bacterial pathogens in a Nepalese University Hospital: A vexatious problem. Annals of Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine 2015:1(2):8-14.

  1. Sah MK, Mishra SK, Ohora H, Kirikae T, Sherchan JB, Rijal BP, Pokhrel BM. Nosocomial bacterial infection and antimicrobial resistant pattern in a tertiary care hospital in Nepal. Journal of Institute of Medicine 2014:35(3):38-48.

  1. Prajapati J, Regmi BM, Shrestha TM, Bharti L, Basyal D, Mishra SK, Gyawali R. Analgesic and Antibacterial Activity of Methanolic Extract of Smilax lanceifolia. International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biological Archives 2014;5(3):79-83.

  1. Tada T, Miyoshi-Akiyama T, Dahal RK, Mishra SK, Shimada K, Ohara H, Kirikae T, Pokhrel BM. Identification of a Novel 6′-N-Aminoglycoside Acetyltransferase, AAC(6′)-Iak, from a Multidrug-Resistant Clinical Isolate of Stenotrophomonas maltophilia. Antimicrobial Agents and Chemotherapy 2014 Aug 4. pii: AAC.03354-14.

  1. Mishra SK, Awal BK, Kattel HP, Acharya J, Gyawali P, Bhatt CP, Shah NP, Parajuli K, Rijal BP, Pokhrel BM. Drug Resistant Bacteria are Growing Menace in a University Hospital in Nepal. American Journal of Epidemiology and Infectious Disease 2014;2(1):19-23.

  1. Ohara H, Pokhrel BM, Dahal RK, Mishra SK, Kattel HP, Shrestha DL, Haneishi y, Sherchand JB. Fact-finding survey of nosocomial infection control in hospitals in Kathmandu, Nepal—A basis for improvement. Tropical Medicine and Health 2013; doi: 10.2149/tmh.2013-03.

  1. Tada T, Miyoshi-Akiyama T, Dahal RK, Mishra SK, Ohara H, Shimada K, Kirikae T, Pokhrel BM. Dissemination of multidrug-resistant Klebsiella pneumoniae clinical isolates with various combinations of carbapenemases (NDM-1 and OXA-72) and 16S rRNA methylases (ArmA, RmtC and RmtF) in Nepal. International Journal of Antimicrobial agents 2013: doi: 10.1016/j.ijantimicag.2013.06.014.

  1. Mishra SK, Rijal BP, Pokhrel BM. Emerging threat of multidrug resistant bugs – Acinetobacter calcoaceticus baumannii complex and Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus. BMC Research Notes 2013: 6:98. (Highly accessed article)

  1. Ansari S, Sherchand JB, Rijal BP, Parajuli K, Mishra SK, Dahal RK, Shrestha S, Tandukar S, Chaudhary R, Kattel HP, Basnet A, Pokhrel BM. Characterisation of rotavirus causing acute diarrhea in children in Kathmandu, Nepal, showing the dominance of serotype G12. Journal of Medical Microbiology 2012; 62:114-20.
  2. Ansari S, Sherchand JB, Parajuli KP, Paudyal BM, Adhikari RP, Shrestha S, Mishra SK, Dahal RK, Tandukar S, Khadka R, Shrestha R, Baral SK, Pokhrel BM. Pattern of Acute Parasitic Diarrhea in Children Under Five Years of Age in Kathmandu, Nepal. Open Journal of Medical Microbiology 2012;2(3),doi:10.4236/ojmm.2012.23014.

  1. Mishra SK, Kattel HP, Acharya J, Shah NP, Shah AS, Sherchand JB, Rijal BP, Pokhrel BM. Recent trend of bacterial etiology of lower respiratory tract infections in a tertiary care centre of Nepal. International Journal of Infection and Microbiology 2012:1(1);3-8. doi:

  1. Subedi A, Amatya MP, Shrestha TM, Mishra SK, Pokhrel BM. Antioxidant and antibacterial activity of methanolic extract of Machilus odoratissima. Kathmandu University Journal of Science, Engineering and Technology 2012;8(1):73-80.

  1. Mishra SK, Acharya J, Kattel HP, Koirala J, Rijal BP, Pokhrel BM. Metallo-beta-lactamase producing gram-negative bacterial isolates. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council 2012 Sep;10(22):208-13.

  1. Ansari S, Sherchand JB, Parajuli K, Mishra SK, Dahal RK, Shrestha S, Tandukar S, Pokhrel BM. Bacterial etiology of acute diarrhea in children under five years of age. Journal of Nepal Health Research Council 2012 Sep;10(22):218-23.

  1. Marhatta SB, Gautam S, Dhital S, Pote N, Jha AK, Mahato R, Mishra S, Poudel BH, Ramasoota P, Kaewkungwal J, Singhasivanon P. katG (SER 315 THR) gene mutation in isoniazid resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Kathmandu University Medical Journal 2011;33(1):19-23.

  1. Pokhrel BM, Karmacharya R, Mishra SK, Koirala J. Distribution of Antibody Titer against Salmonella enterica among Healthy Individuals in Nepal. Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials 2009;8:1doi:10.1186/1476-0711-8-1.

  1. Pokharel BM, Koirala J, Dahal R, Mishra SK, Khadga PK, Tuladhar NR. Multidrug-resistant and extended-spectrum beta-lactamase (ESBL)-producing Salmonella enterica (serotypes Typhi and Paratyphi A) from blood isolates in Nepal: Surveillance of resistance and a search for newer alternatives. International Journal of Infectious Diseases 2006;10:434-8.\

  1. Lakhey M, Bhatta CP, Mishra S. Diagnosis of Tubercular Lymphadenopathy by Fine Needle Aspiration Cytology, Acid-Fast Staining and Mantoux Test. Journal of Nepal Medical Association 2009;48:230-3.

  1. Mishra SK, Shah JP, Shrestha R, Lakhey M. Emergence of nalidixic acid resistant Salmonella: A confounding scene in antibiotic armamentarium. Journal of Nepal Association for Medical Sciences 2008;9(1);64-6.

  1. Pokhrel BM, Koirala J, Mishra SK, Dahal R, Khadga PK, Tuladhar NR. Multidrug resistance and extended spectrum beta lactamase producing strains causing lower respiratory tract and urinary tract infection. Journal of Institute of Medicine 2006;28(3):19-27.

  1. Tamang MD, Sharma N, Makaju RK, Sharma AN, Koju R, Nepali N, Mishra SK. An outbreak of El Tor Cholera in Kavre district, Nepal. Kathmandu University Medical Journal 2005;3(2):138-42.

Reports and Book Chapters

  • Practical Medical Parasitology (Vidyarthi Pustak Bhandar, Nepal) (2014)


2019 - Scientia Scholarship for PhD – UNSW (Australia)

2018 - Society of Healthcare Epidemiology of America - International Ambassadors Award (USA)

2016 - ASMCUE Leadership grant for international educators for outstanding contribution in Undergraduate Microbiology teaching (USA)

2011 – Nepal Bidya Bhusan Padak “KHA” award from the President of Nepal for standing first place in Postgraduate education

2009 - Second Best Paper Presentation in Research Conference on Health Science, IOM

2008 – Nepal Bidya Bhusan Padak “GA” award from the President of Nepal for standing first place in Undergraduate education

1994 – Third place in the ninth National Essay Competition (Nepal Red Cross Society)


2019 – European Congress of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases (ECCMID) - Amsterdam, Netherlands

2018 – Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of American (SHEA) Spring Conference – Oregon, USA

2018 – American Society for Microbiology (ASM) Microbe 2018, in Atlanta, USA

2018 – Workshop on Advanced bioanalytical methods and applications organized by the Department of Biological Sciences, Indian Institute of Science Education and Research Kolkata, India

2016 - American Society for Microbiology Conference for Undergraduate Educators (ASMCUE) - Maryland, USA

2016- 17th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) - Hyderabad, India

2015 - 10th International Symposium on Antimicrobial agents and resistance (ISAAR) - Incheon, Korea

2014 - 32nd World Congress of Internal Medicine (WCIM) - Seoul, Korea

2012 - 15th International Congress on Infectious Diseases (ICID) in Bangkok, Thailand

2012- 6th Ditan International Conference of Infectious Diseases in Beijing, China.

2008 – 5th National Conference on Science and Technology, Kathmandu, Nepal

2004 – 1st SAARC Conference on TB, HIV/AIDS and Respiratory Diseases – Kathmandu, Nepal

2004 - 1st International Conference of Medical Laboratory Sciences - Kathmandu, Nepal


Global Alliance for Infections in Surgery (International Advisory Board)

American Society for Microbiology (ASM)

American Society for Clinical Pathology (ASCP)

British Infection Association (BIA)

International Society of Infectious Diseases (ISID)

Nepal Health Professional Council (NHPC)

Nepal Association for Medical Laboratory Sciences (NAMLS)

Nepal Medical Laboratory Students' Society (President, 2006-2007)