Fatal and non-fatal overdose amongst people who inject drugs (PWID) is a serious public health concern. Opioids are consistently the most commonly identified substances involved in fatal and non-fatal drug overdoses. In Australia, opioids were identified as being involved in over two-thirds (61%) of drug-induced deaths.1

People who inject drugs (PWID) are at higher risk of non-fatal overdose, and recent non-fatal overdose is associated with a higher risk of fatal overdose.2 PWID who report high risk injecting activities, such as public injecting, are at increased risk of multiple non-fatal overdoses.3

Overdose outcomes are dependent on appropriate responses following overdose. Given this, it is crucial to monitor patterns of non-fatal overdose and responses amongst people who inject drugs.

This bulletin examines trends in self-reported non-fatal overdose and responses to heroin overdose amongst a sample of people who regularly inject drugs recruited from capital cities in all states and territories in Australia.



Natalie Thomas, Jennifer Juckel, Catherine Daly, Joemer Maravilla, Caroline Salom
Date Commenced
19 Aug 2021
Resource Type
Drug Trends Bulletins