Stanley Wu
PhD Candidate

Stanley Wu

Supervisors: A/Prof. Michele Madigan and Prof. Nick Di Girolamo Co-supervisor: Dr. Ling Zhu
The response of human uveal melanocytes (pigmented cells) to light, oxidative stress and inflammation


In the eye, the choroid (between the retina and sclera) plays an important role in supplying nutrients and oxygen and removing metabolites from the retinal pigment epithelium and retina. The choroid stroma contains melanin-containing melanocytes within an extracellular matrix that includes blood vessels, immune cells, nerves, and fibroblasts. As the most numerous cells within the choroid, melanocytes contribute significantly to the normal intraocular environment, with both ‘melanin’ and ‘non-melanin’ functions including light absorption, antioxidant, free-radical scavenging activities and may modulate local inflammation and angiogenesis.

The current understanding of eye melanocyte biology and function is mostly from skin melanocyte studies, but they have major biological differences as well as different tissue microenvironment and relative exposure to light (Including UV). In response to UV exposure, skin melanocytes produce melanin with a melanocortin ligand-receptor system. Conversely, inside the human eye only receives <1% UV light. Skin melanocytes are also vulnerable to oxidative stress, induced by light exposure or inflammation, which can disrupt cell function, reduce cell survival and may induce genetic changes associated with malignant transformation. Endogenous melanocortin peptide, α-MSH, can reduce the impact of UV-induced oxidative stress for skin melanocytes. This system also downregulates inflammation and induces protective immune responses in several tissues in the body and may repair and stabilise damaged DNA and prevent cell death.

Recent studies highlight an emerging immunomodulatory role for choroid melanocytes, including expression of immune-related Toll-like receptors, normal and enhanced secretion of proinflammatory chemokines after inflammatory stimulation, and capacity to attract monocytes when stimulated. Interestingly, the dogma remains that melanocortin-induced melanin synthesis is absent in the eye (even for iris melanocytes exposed to significant levels of UV). Furthermore, there is no recognised expression of melanocortin-1 receptor (MC1R) or functional alpha-MSH-MC1R interaction in human eye melanocytes. However, our preliminary data suggests that MC1R is expressed in the human choroidal melanocytes. There is also no clear evidence for melanocortin to reduce oxidative stress and inflammation in eye melanocytes.

Based on current literature, my thesis aims to improve our understanding of the biological signalling pathways involved in human eye melanocyte responses to light exposure (UV versus visible light), oxidative stress and inflammation-related molecules, and the role of the melanocortin system in regulating these responses.


Stanley is a PhD candidate at the School of Optometry and Vision Science, UNSW. He received a Master of Science in Molecular and Cellular Biology from National Taiwan University (2008) and Master of Optometry (Coursework) from UNSW (2017). He is a lecturer at the Department of Optometry, Asia University, Taiwan. He is also the representative Optometrist at Taiwan Optometry Clinical Centre. With a passion for both Cell Biology and Optometry, he commenced his PhD study which aims to further understand the role choroidal melanocytes play in responding to oxidative stress and inflammation in choroidal microenvironment.


Master of Optometry, The University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia (2017)

Postgraduate Bachelor of Optometry, Chung Shan Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan (2015)

Master of Science in Molecular and Cellular Biology, National Taiwan University, Taipei, Taiwan (2008)

Bachelor of Science in Life Science, National Dong Hwa University, Hualien, Taiwan (2006)



Journal Articles

  1. Wang JC, Chen SY, Wang ML, Ko JL, Wu CL, Chen CC, Lin HW, Chang YY. Nickel‐induced VEGF expression via regulation of Akt, ERK1/2, NFκB, and AMPK pathways in H460 cells. Environmental Toxicology. 2019 Feb. DOI: 10.1002/tox.22731
  2. Ho JY*, Hsu RJ*, Wu CL*, Chen SH, Wu MY, Yu JC, Gao HW, Yen AM, Chen HH, Yu CP. BRCA1 mislocalization associated with breast carcinogenesis and poor prognosis in Taiwanese women. European Journal of Cancer Prevention. 2015 Sep;24(5):407-15.*Equal contribution.
  3. Ho JY, Hsu RJ, Wu CL, Chang WL, Cha TL, Yu DS, Yu CP. Ovatodiolide Targets β -Catenin Signaling in Suppressing Tumorigenesis and Overcoming Drug Resistance in Renal Cell Carcinoma. Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine. 2013;2013:161628.
  4. Hsu RJ, Ho JY, Cha TL, Yu DS, Wu CL, Huang WP, Chu P, Chen YH, Chen JT, Yu CP. WNT10A plays an oncogenic role in renal cell carcinoma by activating WNT/β-catenin pathway. PLoS One. 2012;7(10):e47649.
  5. Chen YH, Liu JM, Hsu RJ, Hu SC, Harn HJ, Chen SP, Jeng JR, Wu CL, Ho JY, Yu CP. Angiotensin converting enzyme DD genotype is associated with acute coronary syndrome severity and sudden cardiac death in Taiwan: a case-control emergency room study. BMC Cardiovascular Disorders. 2012 Feb 15;12:6.
  6. Huang HP, Hong CL, Kao CY, Lin SW, Lin SR, Wu HL, Shi GY, You LR, Wu CL, Yu IS. Gene Targeting and Expression Analysis of Mouse Tem1/endosialin using a lacZ Reporter. Gene expression patterns. 2011 Jun-Jul; 11(5-6):316-26.

Conference Abstracts

  1. Wu CL, Natoli R, McCluskey PJ, Conway M, Madigan M, Cioanca V. (2020) Changes in the Transcriptome of Human Choroidal Melanocytes Induced by LPS. Poster session, The 24th International Pigment Cell Conference (IPCC2020), Yamagata, Japan. Abstract published on Pigment Cell and Melanoma Research.
  2. Madigan M, Wegkamp M, Schippers E, Cioanca V, Wu CL, Conway M, Jager M. (2020) Immune and Vascular Characteristics of Choroidal Melanocytic Nevi in Human Eyes. EACR-AACR-ASPIC 2020 Conference: Tumour Microenvironment, Lisbon, Portugal.
  3. Cheong AMY, Wong HY, Choi KY, Cheung HN, Tseng JK, Chen CC, Wu CL, Eng E, Woo GC. (2019) Impact of visual functions on balance performance in students with intellectual disabilities. The 3rd World Congress of Optometry and Academy 2019 Orlando, U.S.A.
  4. Wu CL, Hsu RJ, Tsai HJ (2008) Tissue-specific Inhibition of Target Gene through Short Hairpin RNA Synthesized by RNA Polymerase II in Zebrafish Embryos. The 8th International Meeting on Zebrafish Development and Genetics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, U.S.A.
  5. Wu CL, Hsu RJ, Tsai HJ (2007) The p38 MAPK Mediates the Expression of Myogenic Regulatory Factor Myf5 Gene during Early Somitogenesis of Zebrafish Embryos. The 15th Symposium on Recent Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology, Taiwan.


  1. The Award for Teaching Excellence, Asia University, Taiwan (2019)
  2. Scientia PhD Scholarship, The University of New South Wales, Australia (2019 – 2023)
  3. Most Devoted Student Award (Rank 1st in grade), Chung Shan Medical University, Taiwan (2015)
  4. Award of Outstanding Student, Chung Shan Medical University, Taiwan (2012 – 2014)



Affiliations and Memberships

Conference Attendance

  1. Cancer Research Network and Cancer Research Symposium 2019, University of Sydney, Australia (2019)
  2. The 8th International Meeting on Zebrafish Development and Genetics, University of Wisconsin–Madison, U.S.A. (2008)
  3. The 15th Symposium on Recent Advances in Cellular and Molecular Biology, Kenting, Taiwan (2007)

Affiliations and Memberships

  1. Member, Asian Society for Pigment Cell Research (ASPCR) (Jan 2020 – present)
  2. Director, Taiwan Association for Prevention of Blindness and Low Vision (Jun 2019 – present)
  3. Director, Contact Lens Society of Taiwan (Sep 2018 – present)
  4. Founder Member, Taiwan Optometrists Association (Apr 2018 – present)
  5. Executive Supervisor, Yunlin Optometric Association, Yunlin, Taiwan (Jan 2018 – present)
  6. Supervisor and Optometrist, Taiwan National Eye Care Network, Lions Clubs International MD 300
  7. (Jan 2018 – present)
  8. Lecturer, Department of Optometry, Asia University, Taichung, Taiwan (Mar 2017 – present)
  9. Representative Optometrist, Taiwan Optometry Clinical Centre, Yunlin, Taiwan (July 2014 – present)