Dr Daniel Fernandez Ruiz
Senior Research Fellow

Dr Daniel Fernandez Ruiz

2008 - PhD, Immunology, University of Bonn, Germany.

2003 - BSc, Biochemistry, University of Oviedo, Spain.

2001 - BSc, Biology, University of Oviedo, Spain.

Medicine & Health
School of Biomedical Sciences

I am a cellular immunologist specialised in vaccine development at the School of Biomedical Sciences, UNSW, and the UNSW RNA Institute. Originally from Spain, where I completed my undergrad studies, I obtained my PhD at the University of Bonn, in Germany, and did my post-doc at the Doherty Institute in Melbourne. I relocated to UNSW in 2023 to start my own lab. My research studies fundamental T cell biology and T cell immunity to infectious diseases, and applies this knowledge to the development of experimental T cell-based vaccines in preclinical models of infection, as well as to translation into human vaccines.

 

During my scientific career, I have made different contributions to the research fields of T cell biology, malaria immunology and vaccine development:

 

Development of key scientific resources for the research of malaria immunology: The study of malaria immunology provides unique opportunities to lear about fundamental mechanisms regulating T cell biology; for example, T cell activation, expansion and persistence, T cell exhaustion, tissue immunity, etc. A major obstacle to research on malaria immunology in mice has been the lack of adequate tools that enable accurate tracking of T cell responses. My work resulted in the development of the first Plasmodium-specific, MHC I-restricted and MHC II-restricted T cell receptor transgenic mouse lines (termed PbT-I and PbT-II respectively), which are currently employed in many laboratories around the globe and have enabled important contributions to the fields of basic immunology and malaria immunity. Importantly, more recently, using a cross-disciplinary approach involving mass spectrometry analyses, I identified the cognate Plasmodium antigens recognised by PbT-I and PbT-II cells, which further enhances the usefulness of these immunological tools.

 

CD8+ T cell biology and tissue-resident memory: My work studying CD8+ T cell memory in tissues demonstrated that a subpopulation of CD8+ cells in the mouse liver are true resident memory cells, described the transcriptional and surface marker profile of these cells and performed their functional characterisation. This thorough analysis defined liver TRM cells as a unique subpopulation of memory cells with marked peculiarities (such as their exposure to the blood) even among TRM cells in other tissues, and is essential for our understanding of these cells and their potential for immunity against liver infections. This work was followed up by the identification of the Plasmodium berghei ribosomal protein RPL6 as a highly protective antigen for TRM-based immunity against malaria (this is also the cognate antigen of PbT-I cells). This was only the second Plasmodium-derived protective CD8 T cell epitope ever identified in the C57BL/6 background, which enabled the first direct study of endogenous liver TRM cells specific for Plasmodium, and was essential for the development of TRM-based vaccines against malaria in the lab (see below). My research also explored the requirements for the establishment and maintenance of CD8+ T cell resident memory in the liver, and also the capacity of a broad variety of adjuvants, either naked or aided by cell-delivery mechanisms, to induce formation of liver TRM cells and malaria protection


Development of TRM cell-based malaria vaccines: My work led to the generation of the first TRM-based subunit experimental vaccine against malaria, termed "Prime and Trap", which provided unprecedented protection (for a subunit vaccine) against Plasmodium liver infection in mice. This vaccine provided proof of principle that TRM immunity could be efficiently harnessed for outstanding protection against malaria, delineating the requirements to induce this type of immunity. It was followed up by a more simple, second generation glycolipid vaccine and a third generation, mRNA-based vaccine against malaria, whose efficacy relies on the same principles as Prime and Trap.

 

CD4+ T cell biology: My studies using PbT-II cells have underlined the importance of type I dendritic cells in priming CD4+ T cell responses against malaria and in favouring the generation of particular, polarised CD4+ T cell subsets. In turn, this work also demonstrated the important role of CD4+ T cells in licensing dendritic cells to enable the generation of CD8+ T cell responses, even in the presence of systemic inflammation (i.e. blood stage malaria). This finding has important implications for the understanding of CD8+ T cell immunity and, potentially, for future implementation of immunisation strategies that seek to deliver antigen to antigen presenting cells.

 

Development of a COVID vaccine: I have had the opportunity to participate in the development of a new COVID vaccine, assessing the capacity of this vaccine to generate T cell responses (CD4 or CD8) .

 

Location
Wallace Wurth Building, Level 2, Room 231
  • Journal articles | 2024
    Carrera Montoya J; Collett S; Fernandez Ruiz D; Earnest L; Edeling MA; Yap AHY; Wong CY; Cooney JP; Davidson KC; Roberts J; Rockman S; Tran BM; McAuley JL; Deliyannis G; Grimley SL; Purcell DFJ; Waters SA; Godfrey DI; Hans D; Pellegrini M; Mackenzie JM; Vincan E; Heath WR; Torresi J, 2024, 'Human Nasal Epithelium Organoids for Assessing Neutralizing Antibodies to a Protective SARS-CoV-2 Virus-like Particle Vaccine', Organoids, 3, pp. 18 - 31, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/organoids3010002
    Journal articles | 2023
    Chora ÂF; Marques S; Gonçalves JL; Lima P; Gomes da Costa D; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Marreiros MI; Ruivo P; Carvalho T; Ribeiro RM; Serre K; Heath WR; Silva-Santos B; Tate AT; Mota MM, 2023, 'Interplay between liver and blood stages of Plasmodium infection dictates malaria severity via γδ T cells and IL-17-promoted stress erythropoiesis', Immunity, 56, pp. 592 - 605.e8, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2023.01.031
    Journal articles | 2023
    Ganley M; Holz LE; Minnell JJ; de Menezes MN; Burn OK; Poa KCY; Draper SL; English K; Chan STS; Anderson RJ; Compton BJ; Marshall AJ; Cozijnsen A; Chua YC; Ge Z; Farrand KJ; Mamum JC; Xu C; Cockburn IA; Yui K; Bertolino P; Gras S; Le Nours J; Rossjohn J; Fernandez-Ruiz D; McFadden GI; Ackerley DF; Painter GF; Hermans IF; Heath WR, 2023, 'mRNA vaccine against malaria tailored for liver-resident memory T cells', Nature Immunology, 24, pp. 1487 - 1498, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41590-023-01562-6
    Journal articles | 2023
    Valencia-Hernandez AM; Zillinger T; Ge Z; Tan PS; Cozijnsen A; I. McFadden G; Lahoud MH; Caminschi I; Barchet W; Heath WR; Fernandez-Ruiz D, 2023, 'Complexing CpG adjuvants with cationic liposomes enhances vaccine-induced formation of liver TRM cells', Vaccine, 41, pp. 1094 - 1107, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2022.12.047
    Journal articles | 2022
    Heath WR; Holz LE; Fernandez-Ruiz D, 2022, 'The Batman and Robin of liver-stage immunity to malaria', Trends in Parasitology, 38, pp. 7 - 8, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2021.11.002
    Journal articles | 2022
    Ntita M; Inoue SI; Jian JY; Bayarsaikhan G; Kimura K; Kimura D; Miyakoda M; Nozaki E; Sakurai T; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Heath WR; Yui K, 2022, 'Type I interferon production elicits differential CD4+T-cell responses in mice infected with Plasmodium berghei ANKA and P. chabaudi', International Immunology, 34, pp. 21 - 33, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxab090
    Journal articles | 2021
    Enders MH; Bayarsaikhan G; Ghilas S; Chua YC; May R; de Menezes MN; Ge Z; Tan PS; Cozijnsen A; Mollard V; Yui K; McFadden GI; Lahoud MH; Caminschi I; Purcell AW; Schittenhelm RB; Beattie L; Heath WR; Fernandez-Ruiz D, 2021, 'Plasmodium berghei Hsp90 contains a natural immunogenic I-Ab-restricted antigen common to rodent and human Plasmodium species', Current Research in Immunology, 2, pp. 79 - 92, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.crimmu.2021.06.002
    Journal articles | 2021
    Fernandez-Ruiz D; de Menezes MN; Holz LE; Ghilas S; Heath WR; Beattie L, 2021, 'Harnessing liver-resident memory T cells for protection against malaria', Expert Review of Vaccines, 20, pp. 127 - 141, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14760584.2021.1881485
    Journal articles | 2021
    Ghazanfari N; Gregory JL; Devi S; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Beattie L; Mueller SN; Heath WR, 2021, 'CD8+ and CD4+ T cells infiltrate into the brain during plasmodium berghei ANKA infection and form long-term resident memory', Journal of Immunology, 207, pp. 1578 - 1590, http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000773
    Journal articles | 2021
    Ghilas S; Enders MH; May R; Holz LE; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Cozijnsen A; Mollard V; Cockburn IA; McFadden GI; Heath WR; Beattie L, 2021, 'Development of Plasmodium-specific liver-resident memory CD8+ T cells after heat-killed sporozoite immunization in mice', European Journal of Immunology, 51, pp. 1153 - 1165, http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eji.202048757
    Journal articles | 2021
    Jian JY; Inoue SI; Bayarsaikhan G; Miyakoda M; Kimura D; Kimura K; Nozaki E; Sakurai T; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Heath WR; Yui K, 2021, 'CD49d marks Th1 and Tfh-like antigen-specific CD4+T cells during Plasmodium chabaudi infection', International Immunology, 33, pp. 409 - 422, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/intimm/dxab020
    Journal articles | 2021
    Li J; Panetta F; O'Keeffe M; Rojas IML; Radford KJ; Zhang JG; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Davey GM; Gully BS; Tullett KM; Rossjohn J; Berry R; Lee CN; Lahoud MH; Heath WR; Caminschi I, 2021, 'Elucidating the motif for cpg oligonucleotide binding to the dendritic cell receptor dec-205 leads to improved adjuvants for liver-resident memory', Journal of Immunology, 207, pp. 1836 - 1847, http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2001153
    Journal articles | 2021
    Pack AD; Schwartzhoff PV; Zacharias ZR; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Heath WR; Gurung P; Legge KL; Janse CJ; Butler NS, 2021, 'Hemozoin-mediated inflammasome activation limits long-lived anti-malarial immunity', Cell Reports, 36, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2021.109586
    Journal articles | 2021
    Surette FA; Guthmiller JJ; Li L; Sturtz AJ; Vijay R; Pope RL; McClellan BL; Pack AD; Zander RA; Shao P; Lan LYL; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Heath WR; Wilson PC; Butler NS, 2021, 'Extrafollicular CD4 T cell-derived IL-10 functions rapidly and transiently to support anti-Plasmodium humoral immunity', PLoS Pathogens, 17, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/JOURNAL.PPAT.1009288
    Journal articles | 2020
    Ghilas S; Valencia-Hernandez AM; Enders MH; Heath WR; Fernandez-Ruiz D, 2020, 'Resident memory t cells and their role within the liver', International Journal of Molecular Sciences, 21, http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21228565
    Journal articles | 2020
    Holz LE; Chua YC; de Menezes MN; Anderson RJ; Draper SL; Compton BJ; Chan STS; Mathew J; Li J; Kedzierski L; Wang Z; Beattie L; Enders MH; Ghilas S; May R; Steiner TM; Lange J; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Valencia-Hernandez AM; Osmond TL; Farrand KJ; Seneviratna R; Almeida CF; Tullett KM; Bertolino P; Bowen DG; Cozijnsen A; Mollard V; McFadden GI; Caminschi I; Lahoud MH; Kedzierska K; Turner SJ; Godfrey DI; Hermans IF; Painter GF; Heath WR, 2020, 'Glycolipid-peptide vaccination induces liver-resident memory CD8+ T cells that protect against rodent malaria', Science Immunology, 5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/SCIIMMUNOL.AAZ8035
    Journal articles | 2020
    Kato Y; Steiner TM; Park HY; Hitchcock RO; Zaid A; Hor JL; Devi S; Davey GM; Vremec D; Tullett KM; Tan PS; Ahmet F; Mueller SN; Alonso S; Tarlinton DM; Ploegh HL; Kaisho T; Beattie L; Manton JH; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Shortman K; Lahoud MH; Heath WR; Caminschi I, 2020, 'Display of native antigen on cDC1 that have spatial access to both T and B cells underlies efficient humoral vaccination', Journal of Immunology, 205, pp. 1842 - 1856, http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.2000549
    Journal articles | 2020
    Valencia-Hernandez AM; Ng WY; Ghazanfari N; Ghilas S; de Menezes MN; Holz LE; Huang C; English K; Naung M; Tan PS; Tullett KM; Steiner TM; Enders MH; Beattie L; Chua YC; Jones CM; Cozijnsen A; Mollard V; Cai Y; Bowen DG; Purcell AW; La Gruta NL; Villadangos JA; de Koning-Ward T; Barry AE; Barchet W; Cockburn IA; McFadden GI; Gras S; Lahoud MH; Bertolino P; Schittenhelm RB; Caminschi I; Heath WR; Fernandez-Ruiz D, 2020, 'A Natural Peptide Antigen within the Plasmodium Ribosomal Protein RPL6 Confers Liver TRM Cell-Mediated Immunity against Malaria in Mice', Cell Host and Microbe, 27, pp. 950 - 962.e7, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chom.2020.04.010
    Journal articles | 2019
    Bachem A; Makhlouf C; Binger KJ; de Souza DP; Tull D; Hochheiser K; Whitney PG; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Dähling S; Kastenmüller W; Jönsson J; Gressier E; Lew AM; Perdomo C; Kupz A; Figgett W; Mackay F; Oleshansky M; Russ BE; Parish IA; Kallies A; McConville MJ; Turner SJ; Gebhardt T; Bedoui S, 2019, 'Microbiota-Derived Short-Chain Fatty Acids Promote the Memory Potential of Antigen-Activated CD8+ T Cells', Immunity, 51, pp. 285 - 297.e5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.06.002
    Journal articles | 2019
    Fernandez-Ruiz D; Ng WY; Holz LE; Ma JZ; Zaid A; Wong YC; Lau LS; Mollard V; Cozijnsen A; Collins N; Li J; Davey GM; Kato Y; Devi S; Skandari R; Pauley M; Manton JH; Godfrey DI; Braun A; Tay SS; Tan PS; Bowen DG; Koch-Nolte F; Rissiek B; Carbone FR; Crabb BS; Lahoud M; Cockburn IA; Mueller SN; Bertolino P; McFadden GI; Caminschi I; Heath WR, 2019, 'Erratum: Liver-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells Form a Front-Line Defense against Malaria Liver-Stage Infection (Immunity (2016) 45(4) (889–902), (S1074761316303351), (10.1016/j.immuni.2016.08.011))', Immunity, 51, pp. 780, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2019.09.019
    Journal articles | 2018
    Benoun JM; Peres NG; Wang N; Pham OH; Rudisill VL; Fogassy ZN; Whitney PG; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Gebhardt T; Pham QM; Puddington L; Bedoui S; Strugnell RA; McSorley SJ, 2018, 'Optimal protection against Salmonella infection requires noncirculating memory', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 115, pp. 10416 - 10421, http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1808339115
    Journal articles | 2018
    Holz LE; Prier JE; Freestone D; Steiner TM; English K; Johnson DN; Mollard V; Cozijnsen A; Davey GM; Godfrey DI; Yui K; Mackay LK; Lahoud MH; Caminschi I; McFadden GI; Bertolino P; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Heath WR, 2018, 'CD8+ T Cell Activation Leads to Constitutive Formation of Liver Tissue-Resident Memory T Cells that Seed a Large and Flexible Niche in the Liver', Cell Reports, 25, pp. 68 - 79.e4, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.celrep.2018.08.094
    Journal articles | 2018
    James KR; Soon MSF; Sebina I; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Davey G; Liligeto UN; Nair AS; Fogg LG; Edwards CL; Best SE; Lansink LIM; Schroder K; Wilson JAC; Austin R; Suhrbier A; Lane SW; Hill GR; Engwerda CR; Heath WR; Haque A, 2018, 'IFN regulatory factor 3 balances Th1 and t follicular helper immunity during nonlethal blood-Stage plasmodium infection', Journal of Immunology, 200, pp. 1443 - 1456, http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1700782
    Journal articles | 2017
    Fernandez-Ruiz D; Lau LS; Ghazanfari N; Jones CM; Ng WY; Davey GM; Berthold D; Holz L; Kato Y; Enders MH; Bayarsaikhan G; Hendriks SH; Lansink LIM; Engel JA; Soon MSF; James KR; Cozijnsen A; Mollard V; Uboldi AD; Tonkin CJ; De Koning-Ward TF; Gilson PR; Kaisho T; Haque A; Crabb BS; Carbone FR; McFadden GI; Heath WR, 2017, 'Development of a novel CD4+ TCR transgenic line that reveals a dominant role for CD8+ dendritic cells and CD40 signaling in the generation of helper and CTL responses to blood-stage malaria', Journal of Immunology, 199, pp. 4165 - 4179, http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1700186
    Journal articles | 2017
    Lönnberg T; Svensson V; James KR; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Sebina I; Montandon R; Soon MSF; Fogg LG; Nair AS; Liligeto UN; Stubbington MJT; Ly LH; Bagger FO; Zwiessele M; Lawrence ND; Souza-Fonseca-Guimaraes F; Bunn PT; Engwerda CR; Heath WR; Billker O; Stegle O; Haque A; Teichmann SA, 2017, 'Single-cell RNA-seq and computational analysis using temporal mixture modeling resolves TH1/TFH fate bifurcation in malaria', Science Immunology, 2, http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciimmunol.aal2192
    Journal articles | 2016
    Fernandez-Ruiz D; Ng WY; Holz LE; Ma JZ; Zaid A; Wong YC; Lau LS; Mollard V; Cozijnsen A; Collins N; Li J; Davey GM; Kato Y; Devi S; Skandari R; Pauley M; Manton JH; Godfrey DI; Braun A; Tay SS; Tan PS; Bowen DG; Koch-Nolte F; Rissiek B; Carbone FR; Crabb BS; Lahoud M; Cockburn IA; Mueller SN; Bertolino P; McFadden GI; Caminschi I; Heath WR, 2016, 'Liver-Resident Memory CD8+ T Cells Form a Front-Line Defense against Malaria Liver-Stage Infection', Immunity, 45, pp. 889 - 902, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.immuni.2016.08.011
    Journal articles | 2016
    Holz LE; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Heath WR, 2016, 'Protective immunity to liver-stage malaria', Clinical and Translational Immunology, 5, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/CTI.2016.60
    Journal articles | 2016
    Proserpio V; Piccolo A; Haim-Vilmovsky L; Kar G; Lönnberg T; Svensson V; Pramanik J; Natarajan KN; Zhai W; Zhang X; Donati G; Kayikci M; Kotar J; McKenzie ANJ; Montandon R; Billker O; Woodhouse S; Cicuta P; Nicodemi M; Teichmann SA, 2016, 'Single-cell analysis of CD4+ T-cell differentiation reveals three major cell states and progressive acceleration of proliferation', Genome Biology, 17, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-016-0957-5
    Journal articles | 2016
    Proserpio V; Piccolo A; Haim-Vilmovsky L; Kar G; Lönnberg T; Svensson V; Pramanik J; Natarajan KN; Zhai W; Zhang X; Donati G; Kayikci M; Kotar J; McKenzie ANJ; Montandon R; James KR; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Heath WR; Haque A; Billker O; Woodhouse S; Cicuta P; Nicodemi M; Teichmann SA, 2016, 'Erratum to: Single cell analysis of CD4+ T cell differentiation reveals three major cell states and progressive acceleration of proliferation [Genome Biol. 17 (2016) 103]', Genome Biology, 17, http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13059-016-0998-9
    Journal articles | 2014
    Lau LS; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Mollard V; Sturm A; Neller MA; Cozijnsen A; Gregory JL; Davey GM; Jones CM; Lin YH; Haque A; Engwerda CR; Nie CQ; Hansen DS; Murphy KM; Papenfuss AT; Miles JJ; Burrows SR; de Koning-Ward T; McFadden GI; Carbone FR; Crabb BS; Heath WR, 2014, 'CD8+ T Cells from a Novel T Cell Receptor Transgenic Mouse Induce Liver-Stage Immunity That Can Be Boosted by Blood-Stage Infection in Rodent Malaria', PLoS Pathogens, 10, http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.ppat.1004135
    Journal articles | 2012
    Kupz A; Guarda G; Gebhardt T; Sander LE; Short KR; Diavatopoulos DA; Wijburg OLC; Cao H; Waithman JC; Chen W; Fernandez-Ruiz D; Whitney PG; Heath WR; Curtiss R; Tschopp J; Strugnell RA; Bedoui S, 2012, 'NLRC4 inflammasomes in dendritic cells regulate noncognate effector function by memory CD8 + T cells', Nature Immunology, 13, pp. 162 - 169, http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ni.2195
    Journal articles | 2011
    Hoves S; Sutton VR; Haynes NM; Hawkins ED; Ruiz DF; Baschuk N; Sedelies KA; Schnurr M; Stagg J; Andrews DM; Villadangos JA; Trapani JA, 2011, 'A critical role for granzymes in antigen cross-presentation through regulating phagocytosis of killed tumor cells', Journal of Immunology, 187, pp. 1166 - 1175, http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.1001670
    Journal articles | 2011
    Lau LS; Fernandez Ruiz D; Davey GM; De Koning-Ward TF; Papenfuss AT; Carbone FR; Brooks AG; Crabb BS; Heath WR, 2011, 'Blood-stage plasmodium berghei infection generates a potent, specific CD8+ T-cell response despite residence largely in cells lacking MHC i processing machinery', Journal of Infectious Diseases, 204, pp. 1989 - 1996, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jir656
    Journal articles | 2010
    Specht S; Ruiz DF; Dubben B; Deininger S; Hoerauf A, 2010, 'Filaria-induced IL-10 suppresses murine cerebral malaria', Microbes and Infection, 12, pp. 635 - 642, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2010.04.006
    Journal articles | 2009
    Fernández Ruiz D; Dubben B; Saeftel M; Endl E; Deininger S; Hoerauf A; Specht S, 2009, 'Filarial infection induces protection against P. berghei liver stages in mice', Microbes and Infection, 11, pp. 172 - 180, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.micinf.2008.11.003
  • Preprints | 2017
    Fernandez-Ruiz D; Lau LS; Ghazanfari N; Jones C; Ng WY; Davey G; Berthold D; Holz L; Kato Y; Bayarsaikhan G; Hendriks S; James K; Cozijnsen A; Mollard V; de Koning-Ward T; Gilson P; Kaisho T; Haque A; Crabb B; Carbone F; McFadden G; Heath W, 2017, Development of a Novel CD4+TCR Transgenic Line that Reveals a Dominant Role for CD8+DC and CD40-Signaling in the Generation of Helper and CTL Responses to Blood Stage Malaria, , http://dx.doi.org/10.1101/113837

NHMRC Project grant, GP1139486, 2018-21, $1,196,853. Role: CIA.

ARC Discovery Grant, DP220103545, 2022-2025, $770,000. Role: CIB.

CASS Science & Medicine grant, 2020, $58,000. Role: sole CI.

School of Biomedical Sciences EMCRA Collaborative Award, University of Melbourne, 2022, $20,000. Role: co-CI.

Research Grant Support Scheme, University of Melbourne, 2023, $37,474. Role: sole CI.