Associate Professor Oliver   Bown
Associate Professor

Associate Professor Oliver Bown

Arts,Design & Architecture
School of Art & Design

Keywords and research areas: Computational Creativity, Generative Music & Art, Musical Metacreation, Interactive Media Art & Design.

I am a researcher and maker working with creative technologies. I come from a highly diverse academic background spanning social anthropology, evolutionary and adaptive systems, music informatics and interaction design, with a parallel career in electronic music and digital art spanning over 15 years. I am interested in how artists, designers and musicians can use advanced computing technologies to produce complex creative works. My current active research areas include media multiplicites, musical metacreation, the theories and methodologies of computational creativity, new interfaces for musical expression, and multi-agent models of social creativity.

Following a bachelors in mathematics and social anthropology at the University of Cambridge and a masters in evolutionary and adaptive systems at the University of Sussex, I undertook a PhD looking at simulation models of the evolution of human musical behaviour at the Intelligent Sound and Music Systems group, Goldsmiths College, London, under the supervision of Professor Geraint Wiggins. In 2008 I moved to Melbourne, Australia, to work as postdoctoral research assistant with Jon McCormack at Monash University, working on an ARC Discovery Project that looked at ecosystemic approaches to digital creativity. In 2011 I took a lectureship at the Design Lab at the University of Sydney, where I was also postdoctoral fellow from 2012. In 2015 I joined UNSW Art & Design as Senior Lecturer.

During this time I have played in a number of improvied music ensembles, most notably my electronic music duo Icarus (with Sam Britton), the Not Applicable Artists Collective (with Sam Britton, Tom Arthurs, Lothar Olhmeier, Maurizio Ravalico, Britt Hatzius, Martin Hampton, Rudi Fischerlehner and Oliver Dukert), and Tangents (with Peter Hollo, Adrian Lim-Klumpes, Shoeb Ahmad and Evan Dorrian). I am also a collaborating member of the digital interactive art group Squidsoup, and have collaborated with many artsits, musicians and designers on digital interactive artworks.

I am a founding member of the Musical Metacreation Research Network, a member of the steering committee for the International Conference on Computational Creativity, and have been a creative advisor to the University of Sydney Vivid Festival.

I have performed, composed and created interactive works in a number of countries, contexts and collaborations, such as...

Sonic Acts Festival Amsterdam, Vivid Sydney, AudioVisiva Milan, Bimhuis Amsterdam, Scala London, Oslo Lux, Kinetica Art Fair, Powerhouse Sydney, ISEA, Four Tet (remix), Murcof (remix), The Leaf Label, Output Recordings, Cafe Oto, Adem Ilhan (duo), Futuresonic, Dysfunktional Beats, The NOW Now, Eclectic Method feat. Chuck D (remix), ABC New Music Up Late, ABC Sound Quality, Codame Festival San Francisco, ABC Catalyst, Science Museum London, FBi Ears Have Ears, Weirdcore, Shepherds Bush Empire London, The Monastery of Sound, JazzHouse Copenhagen, Norburg Festival Sweden, Rump Recordings, Jazzjuice Festival Aarhus, ISEA, HellosQuare, Sage Gateshead, North Sea Jazz Festival, King's Place London, Brussels Planetarium, The Wire Magazine, BBC Mixing It, BBC Late Junction, Shunt London, Cube Cinema Bristol, Temporary Residence, Siouxie Sioux (remix), Sonic Arts Network Expo, Ars Electronica, Transmediale Festival, Cave12 Geneva, Caribou (remix), Aphex Twin (software development), Lux Cinema London, PRS Foundation for New Music, STEIM Amsterdam, Sage Gateshead, xCoAx, Dispatch Festival Belgrade, Seymour Centre, Australia Council, British Council.

Publications

  • Book Chapters | 2021
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2021, 'Sociocultural and Design Perspectives on AI-Based Music Production: Why Do We Make Music and What Changes if AI Makes It for Us?', in Handbook of Artificial Intelligence for Music, Springer International Publishing, pp. 1 - 20, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-72116-9_1
    Book Chapters | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Brown A, 2018, 'Interaction Design for Metacreative Systems', in New Directions in Third Wave Human-Computer Interaction: Volume 1 - Technologies, Springer, pp. 67 - 87, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-73356-2_5
    Book Chapters | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Eldridge A; Bown O, 2018, 'Biologically Inspired and Agent-Based Algorithms for Music', in Dean RT; McLean A (ed.), The Oxford Handbook of Algorithmic Music, Oxford University Press, pp. 209 - 244, http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/oxfordhb/9780190226992.013.18
    Book Chapters | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Gough P; Tomitsch M, 2017, 'Learning design through facilitating collaborative design: Incorporating service learning into a first year undergraduate design degree course', in Collaboration and Student Engagement in Design Education, pp. 209 - 229, http://dx.doi.org/10.4018/978-1-5225-0726-0.ch010
    Edited Books | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Loke L, (ed.), 2015, Musify+Gamify Exhibition Catalogue
    Book Chapters | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Gemeinboeck P; Saunders R, 2014, 'The machine as autonomous performer', in Candy L; Ferguson S (ed.), Interactive Experience in the Digital Age, edn. Springer Series on Cultural Computing, Springer, pp. 75 - 90, http://www.springer.com/computer/hci/book/978-3-319-04509-2
    Book Chapters | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2012, 'Generative and adaptive creativity: A unified approach to creativity in nature, humans and machines', in Computers and Creativity, pp. 361 - 381, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31727-9_14
    Book Chapters | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Blackwell T; Bown O; Young M, 2012, 'Live algorithms: Towards autonomous computer improvisers', in Computers and Creativity, pp. 147 - 174, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31727-9_6
    Book Chapters | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Blackwell T; Young M; Bown O, 2012, 'Live Algorithms: towards autonomous computer improvisers', in Computers and Creativity, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 147 - 174, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31727-9
    Book Chapters | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2012, 'Generative and Adaptive Creativity', in Computers and Creativity, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg, pp. 361 - 381, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-31727-9
  • Journal articles | 2020
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Fraietta A; Bown O; Ferguson S; Gillespie S; Bray L, 2020, 'Rapid composition for networked devices: Happybrackets', Computer Music Journal, vol. 43, pp. 89 - 108, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/COMJ_a_00520
    Journal articles | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Ferguson S, 2018, 'Creative media + the internet of things = media multiplicities', Leonardo, vol. 51, pp. 53 - 54, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/LEON_a_01549
    Journal articles | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Ferguson S, 2018, 'Understanding media multiplicities', Entertainment Computing, vol. 25, pp. 62 - 70, http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.entcom.2017.11.001
    Journal articles | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2018, 'Performer interaction and expectation with live algorithms: experiences with Zamyatin', Digital Creativity, vol. 29, pp. 37 - 50, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14626268.2018.1432663
    Journal articles | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Martin A; Jin CT; Bown O, 2018, 'Design and Evaluation of Agents that Sequence and Juxtapose Short Musical Patterns in Real Time', Computer Music Journal, vol. 41, pp. 45 - 63, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/comj_a_00439
    Journal articles | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bech T; Sun D; Su P; Chanel D-A; Constant R; Rowe A; Birtles L; Bennewith C; Bown O, 2017, 'Demo hour', Interactions, vol. 24, pp. 10 - 13, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3044536
    Journal articles | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Pasquier P; Eigenfeldt A; Bown O; Dubnov S, 2016, 'An introduction to musical metacreation', Computers in Entertainment, vol. 14, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2930672
    Journal articles | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Eigenfeldt A; Pasquier P; Dubnov S, 2016, 'Special issue on musical metacreation, part I', Computers in Entertainment, vol. 14, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3024062
    Journal articles | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Eigenfeldt A; Pasquier P; Dubnov S, 2016, 'Special issue on Musical Metacreation, part II', Computers in Entertainment, vol. 14, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3029374
    Journal articles | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Brucker-Cohen J; Bech T; Rowe A; Bushell G; Birtles L; Bennewith C; Bown O; Sun D; Su P; Roy N; Jan V; Morozov D; Digumarti T; Alonso-Mora J; Siegwart R; Beardsley P; Jacobsen M; Chanel DA; Constant R; Grosser B, 2016, 'Data materialities art gallery curator', Leonardo, vol. 49, pp. 352 - 374, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/LEON_a_01289
    Journal articles | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Saunders R; Bown O, 2015, 'Computational Social Creativity', Artificial Life, vol. 21, pp. 366 - 378, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00177
    Journal articles | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Saunders R; Bown O, 2015, 'Computational Social Creativity', Artificial Life, vol. 21, pp. 366 - 378, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/ARTL_a_00177
    Journal articles | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    McCormack J; Bown O; Dorin A; McCabe J; Monro G; Whitelaw M, 2014, 'Ten Questions Concerning Generative Computer Art', Leonardo, vol. 47, pp. 135 - 141, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/LEON_a_00533
    Journal articles | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Britton S, 2014, 'An Album in 1,000 Variations: Notes on the Composition and Distribution of a Parametric Musical Work', Leonardo, vol. 47, pp. 437 - 441, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/LEON_a_00866
    Journal articles | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Eigenfeldt A; Hodhod R; Pasquier P; Swanson R; Ware SG; Zhu J, 2012, 'Reports on the 2012 AIIDE Workshops', AI Magazine, vol. 34, pp. 90 - 90, http://dx.doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v34i1.2459
    Journal articles | 2011
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2011, 'Experiments in modular design for the creative composition of live algorithms', Computer Music Journal, vol. 35, pp. 73 - 85, http://dx.doi.org/10.1162/COMJ_a_00070
    Journal articles | 2010
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Mccormack J, 2010, 'Taming nature: Tapping the creative potential of ecosystem models in the arts', Digital Creativity, vol. 21, pp. 215 - 231, http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14626268.2011.550029
    Journal articles | 2009
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Eldridge A; McCormack J, 2009, 'Understanding interaction in contemporary digital music: From instruments to behavioural objects', Organised Sound, vol. 14, pp. 188 - 196, http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1355771809000296
    Journal articles | 2009
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Wiggins G, 2009, 'From maladaptation to competition to cooperation in the evolution of musical behaviour', Musicae Scientiae, vol. 13, pp. 387 - 411, http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1029864909013002171
  • Conference Papers | 2021
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Pelikan H; Robinson FA; Keevallik L; Velonaki M; Broth M; Bown O, 2021, 'Sound in human-robot interaction', in ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, ACM, pp. 706 - 708, presented at HRI '21: ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3434074.3444871
    Conference Papers | 2021
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Robinson FA; Velonaki M; Bown O, 2021, 'Smooth operator: Tuning robot perception through artificial movement sound', in ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, ACM, pp. 53 - 62, presented at HRI '21: ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3434073.3444658
    Conference Papers | 2020
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Fraietta A; Ferguson S; Tillman D, 2020, 'Rapid Composition for a Multi-Device Networked Music Platform', in Spagnol S (ed.), Proceedings of the 17th Sound and Music Computing Conference, Torino, June 24th – 26th 2020, Torino, Italy, pp. 399 - 406, presented at Sound and Music Computing Conference, Torino, Italy, 24 June 2020 - 26 June 2020, http://dx.doi.org/10.5281/zenodo.3903573
    Conference Papers | 2020
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Robinson FA; Bown O; Velonaki M, 2020, 'Implicit communication through distributed sound design: Exploring a new modality in human-robot interaction', in ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, ACM, pp. 597 - 599, presented at HRI '20: ACM/IEEE International Conference on Human-Robot Interaction, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3371382.3377431
    Music Compositions | 2020
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Shave J; Hill C; Wright B; Uitdengebord S; Pegram C; Bown O, 2020, Beautiful the World, publication category: Music Compositions, https://www.vprobroadcast.com/titles/ai-songcontest/articles/australia-wins-ai-song-contest.html
    Creative Works (non-textual) | 2020
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Ferguson S; Dias Pereira dos Santos A; Mikolajczyk K; Davies A, 2020, The Mind at Work, The Mind at Work at The Casula Powerhouse Arts Centre, Performance Space, Casula Powerhouse Arts Centre, Performance Space, 09 November 2020 - 31 December 2021, at: https://www.casulapowerhouse.com/visit/casula-powerhouse-exhibitions/2020-exhibitions/the-mind-at-work
    Conference Papers | 2020
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Fraietta A; Bown O; Ferguson S, 2020, 'Transparent Communication Within Multiplicities', in Bown O; Ferguson S (ed.), Trento, Italy, pp. 61 - 72, presented at 1st International Workshop on the Internet of Sounds, Trento, Italy, 07 September 2020 - 08 September 2020
    Conference Papers | 2020
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Fraietta A; Ferguson S; Loke L, 2020, 'Creative coding and interaction design for media multiplicities: Challenges, paradigms and frameworks', in TEI 2020 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, pp. 877 - 880, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3374920.3374966
    Conference Papers | 2020
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Marynowsky W; Ferguson S; Fraietta A; Bown O, 2020, ''The ghosts of roller disco', a choreographed, interactive performance for robotic roller skates', in TEI 2020 - Proceedings of the 14th International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, ACM, pp. 631 - 637, presented at TEI '20: Fourteenth International Conference on Tangible, Embedded, and Embodied Interaction, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3374920.3375284
    Creative Works (non-textual) | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Fraietta A; Lim-Klumpes A; Hollo P; Dorrian E; Ahmad S, 2019, Spiral, Spiral and the Mechanical Music Factory, Powerhouse Museum, Ultimo, 28 February 2019 - 01 January 2020, medium: Mechanical musical instruments, custom audio devices, augmented reality, at: https://sydneydesign.com.au/2019/event/spiral/
    Conference Papers | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Ianigro S; Bown O, 2019, 'Exploring transfer functions in evolved CTRNNs for music generation', in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), Leipzig, pp. 234 - 248, presented at EvoMUSART 2019: Computational Intelligence in Music, Sound, Art and Design, Leipzig, 24 April 2019 - 26 April 2019, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-16667-0_16
    Curatorial Outputs | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Flanagan P; Miller B; Bown O, 2019, MOVE Symposium, exhibited at: UNSW Art & Design, Sydney, 09 March 2019 - 09 March 2019
    Music Compositions | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Antony R; Liam B; Garth P, 2019, Murmuration, publication category: Music Compositions, https://smoca.org/exhibition/murmuration/
    Software / Code | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Fraietta A; Bown O, 2019, HappyBrackets V4.5, Open source platform for coding audio and media programs on remote devices, Published: 01 October 2019, Software / Code, https://github.com/orsjb/HappyBrackets
    Conference Papers | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Fraietta A; Ferguson S; Loke L; Bray L, 2019, 'Facilitating Creative Exploratory Search with Multiple Networked Audio Devices Using HappyBrackets', in Queiroz M; Sedó AX (ed.), Proceedings of the international conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression,, UFGRS, Port Alegre, Brazil, pp. 286 - 291, presented at International Conference on New Interfaces for Musical Expression (NIME 2019), Port Alegre, Brazil, 03 June 2019 - 06 June 2019, http://www.nime.org/proceedings/2019/nime2019_055.pdf
    Conference Papers | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Fraietta A; Bown O, 2019, 'Creating a Sonified Spacecraft Game Using HappyBrackets and Stellarium', in Proceedings of the 17th Linux Audio Conference (LAC-19), CCRMA, Stanford University, California, US, CCRMA, Stanford University, USA, pp. 1 - 7, presented at 17th Linux Audio Conference (LAC-19), CCRMA, Stanford University, USA, 23 March 2019 - 26 March 2019, https://lac.linuxaudio.org/2019/doc/proceedings.pdf
    Curatorial Outputs | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Lawler-Dormer D; Mcdonald D, 2019, The Mechanical Music Factory, exhibited at: Powerhouse Museum, Sydney, 02 February 2019 - 01 January 2020, https://maas.museum/event/spiral-and-the-mechanical-music-factory/
    Recorded / Rendered Creative Works | 2019
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    McGuighan M; Ledwidge M; Bown O, 2019, Tangents - Lake George (video), The music was released by the Temporary Residence Label, Brooklyn US, who also hosted the video., HD video, Published: 22 January 2019, Duration: 00:07:56, Recorded / Rendered Creative Works, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3WyIZ8N0Hrc
    Conference Papers | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Loke L; Bown O; Ferguson S; Bray L; Fraietta A; Packham K, 2018, 'Your move sounds so predictable!', in CHI PLAY 2018 - Proceedings of the 2018 Annual Symposium on Computer-Human Interaction in Play Companion Extended Abstracts, pp. 121 - 125, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3270316.3270591
    Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance) | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Lim-Klumpes A; Hollo P; Dorrian E; Ahmad S, 2018, 2018 dates: WED 28 MAR Melbourne Recital Centre, Melbourne, VIC; SUN 1 APR Leadbelly, Newtown, NSW; SAT 14 – SUN 15 JULY Bello Winter Music, Bellingen, NSW; THURS 19 JULY The Gasometer, Melbourne, VIC; FRI 20 JULY The Gasometer, Melbourne, VIC; SAT 21 JULY Hotel Metro, Adelaide, SA; SUN 22 JULY The Rosemount, Perth, WA; WED 25 JULY Doo Bop Jazz Bar, Brisbane, QLD; SAT 28 JULY Venue 505, Sydney, NSW; FRI 3 AUG The Street Theatre, Canberra, ACT; SAT 4 AUG Rad Bar, Wollongong, NSW; SAT 1 SEPT The Metropole, Katoomba, NSW, Publication: Tangents - New Bodies album live improvised performances, Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance), http://aaabackstage.com/tangents-new-bodies-tour/
    Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance) | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Loke L; Fraietta A; Bray L; Ferguson S; Packham K, 2018, Virginia Tech, Blacksburg Virginia, Publication: So Predictable!?, Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance), https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_wZrVDUnoVE
    Software / Code | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Fraietta A; Ferguson S; Gillespie S, 2018, HappyBrackets V2, Open source platform for coding audio and media programs on remote devices, Published: 13 February 2018, Software / Code
    Conference Papers | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Ianigro S; Bown O, 2018, 'Exploring continuous time recurrent neural networks through novelty search', in Dahl L; Bowman D; Martin T (eds.), Proceedings of the New Interfaces for Musical Expression Conference, Blacksburg, Virginia, June 2-6, 2018, Virginia Tech, Virginia USA, pp. 108 - 113, presented at New Interfaces for Musical Expression, Virginia USA, 02 June 2018 - 06 June 2018, http://www.nime.org/proceedings/2018/nime2018_paper0025.pdf
    Music Compositions | 2018
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Rowe A; Bown O; Klein E, 2018, Wave, publication category: Music Compositions, http://www.oceanoflight.net/blog/portfolio/wave/
    Conference Papers | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Ferguson S; Rowe A; Bown O; Birtles L; Bennewith C, 2017, 'Networked pixels: Strategies for building visual and auditory images with distributed independent devices', in C and C 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Singapore, pp. 299 - 308, presented at 2017 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Singapore, 27 June 2017 - 30 June 2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3059454.3059480
    Conference Papers | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Ferguson S; Bown O, 2017, 'Creative coding for the raspberry pi using the happybrackets platform', in C and C 2017 - Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Singapore, pp. 551 - 553, presented at C&C '17 Proceedings of the 2017 ACM SIGCHI Conference on Creativity and Cognition, Singapore, 27 June 2017 - 30 June 2017, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/3059454.3059482
    Conference Papers | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bray L; Bown O; Carey B, 2017, 'How can we deal with the design principle of visibility in highly encapsulated computationally creative systems?', in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2017
    Conference Papers | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Eigenfeldt A; Bown O; Brown AR; Gifford T, 2017, 'Distributed musical decision-making in an ensemble of musebots: Dramatic changes and endings', in Proceedings of the 8th International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2017
    Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance) | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Lim-Klumpes A; Ahmad S; Hollo P; Dorian E, 2017, Stateless album live improvised performances 2016-2017, Rhythmic Seed Festival, Byron Bay; Music By the Sea Festival, Brisbane; The Golden Age Cinema, Sydney; The Factory Theatre, Sydney; Womadelaide, Adelade; City Recital Hall, Sydney; Waywards; Sydney., Stateless album live improvised performances 2016-2017, Publication: Tangents - Stateless album live improvised performances 2016-2017, Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance), https://archive.womadelaide.com.au/2017/program.html, https://archive.womadelaide.com.au/2017/program.html
    Conference Posters | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Gillespie S; Bown O, 2017, 'Directing Geometrical Musical Representations with Curve-Based Metaparameters', Adelaide, presented at Australasian Computer Music Conference, Adelaide, 28 September 2017 - 01 October 2017
    Conference Papers | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bray L; Bown O; Carey B, 2017, 'How Can We Deal With The Design Principle Of Visibility In Highly Encapsulated Computationally Creative Systems?', in Goel A; Jordanous A; Pease A (eds.), Proceedings of the Eighth International Conference on Computational Creativity, Georgia Institute of Technology, Atlanta, Georgia, pp. 65 - 71, presented at International Conference on Computational Creativity, Atlanta, Georgia, 19 June 2017 - 23 June 2017, http://computationalcreativity.net/iccc2017/ICCC_17_accepted_submissions/ICCC-17_paper_68.pdf
    Conference Papers | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Gillespie SR; Bown O, 2017, 'Solving adaptive game music transitions from a composer centred perspective', in Pasquier P; Bown O; Eigenfeldt A (eds.), Proceedings of the 5th International Workshop on Musical Metacreation (MUME 2017), Eighth International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA., presented at Eighth International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2017, Atlanta, Georgia, USA., 19 June 2017 - 23 June 2017, http://musicalmetacreation.org/buddydrive/file/gillespie/
    Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance) | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Hayward C, 2017, Publication: Performance with Zamyatin (software) and Charles Hayward (drummer), special studio session for BBC Radio 3 Late Junction., Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance), https://www.bbc.co.uk/programmes/b09m4ty7
    Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance) | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Redgate C, 2017, Tempo Reale, Florence, Publication: Performance with Zamyatin (by proxy) at Tempo Reale, Florence, Italy, with Chris Redgate., Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance), http://www.temporeale.it/programma-2017/christopher-redgate-craig-vear-oboe.html, http://www.temporeale.it/programma-2017/christopher-redgate-craig-vear-oboe.html
    Creative Works (non-textual) | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Rowe A; Bown O, 2017, Flow, Flow, Part of Enchanted Forest, Pitlochry, Scotland, 29 September 2017 - 30 October 2017
    Curatorial Outputs | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Eigenfeldt A; Bown OLIVER, 2017, Musical Metacreation Concert, exhibited at: Atlanta, Georgia, 26 June 2017 - 26 June 2017, Musical Metacreation Concert
    Conference Papers | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Eigenfeldt A; Bown O; Brown A; Gifford T, 2017, 'Distributed musical decision-making in an ensemble of musebots: Dramatic changes and endings', in Distributed musical decision-making in an ensemble of musebots: Dramatic changes and endings, International Conference on Computational Creativity, Atlanta, Georgia, presented at International Conference on Computational Creativity, Atlanta, Georgia, 19 June 2017 - 23 June 2017, http://computationalcreativity.net/iccc2017/ICCC_17_accepted_submissions/ICCC-17_paper_5.pdf
    Conference Papers | 2017
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Ferguson S; Rowe A; Bown O; Birtles L; Bennewith C, 2017, 'Sound Design for a System of 1000 Distributed Independent Audio-Visual Devices', in Sound Design for a System of 1000 Distributed Independent Audio-Visual Devices, New Interfaces for Musical Expression, Copenhagen, presented at New Interfaces for Musical Expression, Copenhagen, 15 May 2017 - 19 May 2017, http://www.nime.org/proceedings/2017/nime2017_paper0046.pdf
    Conference Papers | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Ianigro S; Bown O, 2016, 'Plecto: A low-level Interactive Genetic Algorithm for the Evolution of Audio', in Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design. Springer International Publishing, 2016. 63-78., Porto, pp. 63 - 78, presented at Evolutionary and Biologically Inspired Music, Sound, Art and Design, Porto, 17 March 2016 - 17 March 2016, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-319-31008-4_5
    Conference Papers | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bray L; Bown O, 2016, 'Applying core interaction design principles to computational creativity', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2016, pp. 93 - 97
    Conference Papers | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Ianigro S; Bown O, 2016, 'Investigating the musical affordances of continuous time recurrent neural networks', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2016, pp. 278 - 285
    Recorded / Rendered Creative Works | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Rowe A; Bown O; Ferguson S; Bennewith C; Birtles L, 2016, Squidsoup Bloom, Christmas at Kew Gardens, Kew Gardens, London, 1000 arduinos, LEDs, GPS, piezo speakers, computer., Published: 14 December 2016, Recorded / Rendered Creative Works, http://www.kew.org/about-our-organisation/press-media/press-releases/christmas-at-kew-2
    Conference Papers | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Rowe A; Bushell G; Birtles L; Bennewith C; Bown O, 2016, 'Submergence 2013', in ACM SIGGRAPH 2016 Art Gallery, SIGGRAPH 2016, pp. 356 - 357, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2897843.2915190
    Recorded / Rendered Creative Works | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Rowe A; Birtles L; Bown O; Bennewith C, 2016, Squidsoup Submergence II, SIGGRAPH, Anaheim Convention Centre, LA, Published: 23 July 2016, Recorded / Rendered Creative Works, http://s2016.siggraph.org/content/art-gallery
    Recorded / Rendered Creative Works | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Ferguson S, 2016, The 90s Transit Van Drive-By Symphony, New Interfaces for Musical Expression 2016, Queensland Conservatorium, Brisbane, Multiple Raspberry Pi computers and recycled boom boxes., Published: 11 July 2016, Recorded / Rendered Creative Works, http://nime2016.org/
    Recorded / Rendered Creative Works | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Hespanhol L; Bown O; Kuzmanovska I; Couper R, 2016, Silent Island, Vivid Festival, Sydney, Hickson Road Reserve, Sydney, Published: 27 May 2016, Recorded / Rendered Creative Works
    Conference Papers | 2016
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Eigenfeldt A; Bown O; Brown AR; Gifford T, 2016, 'Flexible generation of musical form: Beyond mere generation', in Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2016, pp. 264 - 271
    Conference Papers | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Dorabjee R; Bown O; Sarkar S; Tomitsch M, 2015, 'Back to the future: Identifying interface trends from the past, present and future in immersive applications', in OzCHI 2015: Being Human - Conference Proceedings, pp. 540 - 544, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2838739.2838833
    Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance) | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Nichols J; Van Gelder P; Priest G; Altman L; Smith T; Whillas A, 2015, Musify+Gamify, Vivid Festival, Sydney, Seymour Centre, Vivid Festival, Sydney, Musify+Gamify, Vivid Festival, Sydney, Publication: Infosthetic Orchestra, Performances (Music, Theatre, Dance)
    Conference Papers | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2015, 'Attributing Creative Agency: Are we doing it right?', in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computational Creativity. Park City, Utah. June 30th-July 3rd, 2015., International Conference on Computational Creativity, Park City, Utah, presented at International Conference on Computational Creativity, Park City, Utah, 30 June 2015 - 03 July 2015
    Conference Papers | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2015, 'Player Responses to a Live Algorithm: Conceptualising computational creativity without recourse to human comparisons?', in Proceedings of the Sixth International Conference on Computational Creativity. Park City, Utah. June 30th-July 3rd, 2015., International Conference on Computational Creativity, Park City, Utah, presented at International Conference on Computational Creativity, Park City, Utah, 30 June 2015 - 03 July 2015
    Curatorial Outputs | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Loke L, 2015, Musify+Gamify, exhibited at: Vivid Festival, Seymour Centre, Sydney, 22 May 2015 - 08 June 2015, Musify+Gamify
    Conference Papers | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bray L; Bown O, 2015, 'Ludic Human-Computer Co-Creation', in Proceedings of the Australasian Computer Music Conference, UTS, Sydney, November 2015., Australasian Computer Music Conference, Sydney, presented at Australasian Computer Music Conference, Sydney, 19 November 2015 - 20 November 2015
    Recorded / Rendered Creative Works | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Rowe A; Birtles L; Bown O; Bennewith C, 2015, Squidsoup Tectonic, Private commission for Lava Lab, Lava Design, Amsterdam, Lava Lab, Amsterdam, Published: 01 December 2015, Recorded / Rendered Creative Works
    Conference Papers | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Carey B; Eigenfeldt A, 2015, 'Manifesto for a Musebot Ensemble: A platform for live interactive performance between multiple autonomous musical agents', in Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Electronic Art. Vancouver, Canada. August 14th-18th, 2015., International Symposium on Electronic Art, Vancouver, presented at International Symposium on Electronic Art, Vancouver, 14 August 2015 - 18 August 2015
    Conference Papers | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Loke L; Ferguson S; Reinhardt D, 2015, 'Distributed Interactive Audio Devices: Creative strategies and audience responses to novel musical interaction scenarios', in Proceedings of the 21st International Symposium on Electronic Art. Vancouver, Canada. August 14th-18th, 2015., International Symposium on Electronic Art, Vancouver, presented at International Symposium on Electronic Art, Vancouver, 14 August 2015 - 18 August 2015
    Conference Papers | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Eigenfeldt A; Bown O; Carey B, 2015, 'Collaborative Composition with Creative Systems: Reflections on the First Musebot Ensemble', in Collaborative Composition with Creative Systems: Reflections on the First Musebot Ensemble, International Conference on Computational Creativity, Park City, Utah, presented at International Conference on Computational Creativity, Park City, Utah, 30 June 2015 - 03 July 2015
    Recorded / Rendered Creative Works | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Ferguson S, 2015, Distributed Interactive Audio Devices, Musify+Gamify, Vivid Festival, Sydney, Seymour Centre, Vivid Festival, Sydney, Published: 22 May 2015, Recorded / Rendered Creative Works
    Recorded / Rendered Creative Works | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Ferguson S; Narai J; Murchison J; Kuzmanovska I; Couper R, 2015, Phase Frames, Vivid Sydney, Martin Place, Published: 22 May 2015, Recorded / Rendered Creative Works
    Creative Written Works | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Barrass S; Golding D; Rose J; Bown O; Loke L; Hope C, 2015, Musify+Gamify: Contemporary Perspectives on Gamified Music and Musified Games, Musify+Gamify: Contemporary Perspectives on Gamified Music and Musified Games, Bown O; Loke L, (ed.), http://ebook-finder.com/ebook.php?id=4GDpsgEACAAJ
    Conference Papers | 2015
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Barnes T; Bown O; Buro M; Cook M; Eigenfeldt A; Muñoz-Avila H; Ontañón S; Pasquier P; Tomuro N; Young RM; Zook A, 2015, 'Reports of the workshops held at the tenth AAAI conference on artificial intelligence and interactive digital entertainment (AIIDE)', in AI Magazine, pp. 99 - 102, http://dx.doi.org/10.1609/aimag.v36i1.2576
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Hespanhol L; Tomitsch M; Bown O; Young MM, 2014, 'Using Embodied Audio-Visual Interaction to Promote Social Encounters Around Large Media Façades', in Wakkary R (ed.), Proceedings of the 2014 Designing Interactive Systems Conference 2014, Association for Computing Machinery, Vancouver, BC, pp. 945 - 954, presented at DIS (Designing Interactive Systems) 2014, Vancouver, BC, 21 June 2014 - 25 June 2014, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2598510.2598568
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bray L; Bown O, 2014, 'Digital Composition Systems: User experience study', in Proceedings of the 2014 Australasian Computer Music Conference, Melbourne, July 9th-11th, 2014., Australasian Computer Music Conference, Melbourne, presented at Australasian Computer Music Conference, Melbourne, 09 July 2014 - 11 July 2014
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Bell R; Parkinson A, 2014, 'Examining the Perception of Liveness and Activity in Laptop Music: Listeners’ inference about what the performer is doing from the audio alone', in Proceedings of the NIME 2014 Conference, Goldsmiths, London, June 30th-July 3rd, 2014., New Interfaces for Musical Expression, London, presented at New Interfaces for Musical Expression, London, 30 June 2014 - 03 July 2014
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Saunders R, 2014, 'A Survey of Programmers’ Practices for Handling Complexity in Creative Coding', in Proceedings of the xCoAx Conference, Porto, June 26th-27th, 2014., xCoAx Conference, Porto, presented at xCoAx Conference, Porto, 26 June 2014 - 27 June 2014
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2014, 'A Model of Runaway Evolution of Creative Domains', in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computational Creativity, Ljubljana, June 10th-13th, 2014., International Conference on Computational Creativity, Ljubljana, presented at International Conference on Computational Creativity, Ljubljana, 10 June 2014 - 13 June 2014
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2014, 'Empirically Grounding the Evaluation of Creative Systems: Incorporating Interaction Design', in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computational Creativity, Ljubljana, June 10th-13th, 2014., International Conference on Computational Creativity, Ljubljana, presented at International Conference on Computational Creativity, Ljubljana, 10 June 2014 - 13 June 2014
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2014, 'A model of runaway evolution of creative domains', in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2014
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2014, 'Empirically grounding the evaluation of creative systems: Incorporating interaction design', in Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC 2014
    Conference Papers | 2014
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Pasquier P; Eigenfeldt A; Bown O, 2014, 'Preface', in AAAI Workshop - Technical Report, pp. vii
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Saunders R, 2013, 'Multi-feature visualisations of phenotypic behaviour for creative interactive evolution', in GECCO 2013 - Proceedings of the 2013 Genetic and Evolutionary Computation Conference Companion, pp. 49 - 50, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2464576.2464602
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Eigenfeldt A; Bown O; Pasquier P; Martin A, 2013, 'Reflections on the First Musical Metacreation Weekend', in Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE'13) workshops, Boston, MA, October 14-15th, 2013., Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE), Boston, MA, presented at Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE), Boston, MA, 14 October 2013 - 14 October 2013
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Britton S, 2013, 'Methods for the Flexible Parameterisation of Musical Material in Ableton Live', in Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE'13) workshops, Boston, MA, October 14-15th, 2013., Boston, MA, pp. 24 - 26, presented at Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE), Boston, MA, 13 October 2013 - 14 October 2013
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Eigenfeldt A; Martin A; Carey B; Pasquier P, 2013, 'The Musical Metacreation Weekend: Challenges arising from the live presentation of musically metacreative systems', in Proceedings of Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE'13) workshops, Boston, MA, October 14-15th, 2013., Boston, MA, pp. 27 - 34, presented at Artificial Intelligence and Interactive Digital Entertainment (AIIDE), Boston, MA, 13 October 2013 - 14 October 2013
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Young MM; Johnson S, 2013, 'A Java-based Remote Live Coding System for Controlling Multiple Raspberry PI Units', in Hope C; Vickery L (ed.), ICMC 2013 Proceedings, [International Computer Music Association], [2013], [San Francisco], pp. 31 - 38, presented at International Computer Music Conference, Perth, Australia, 07 August 2013 - 17 August 2013, https://www.dropbox.com/s/qf3vd4crhgrcrjw/1216_TNM_ICMC_Proceedings_screen.pdf
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Martin A, 2013, 'Backgammon', in Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Creativity & Cognition, ACM, presented at C&C '13: Creativity and Cognition 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2466627.2481236
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Martin A; Bown O, 2013, 'The agent designer toolkit', in Proceedings of the 9th ACM Conference on Creativity & Cognition, ACM, presented at C&C '13: Creativity and Cognition 2013, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2466627.2481211
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Mark MC; Bown O, 2013, 'Towards a creativity support tool in processing: Understanding the needs of creative coders', in Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference: Augmentation, Application, Innovation, Collaboration, OzCHI 2013, pp. 143 - 146, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2541016.2541096
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Eigenfeldt A; Bown O; Pasquier P; Martin A, 2013, 'Towards a taxonomy of musical metacreation: Reflections on the first musical metacreation weekend', in AAAI Workshop - Technical Report, pp. 40 - 47
    Conference Papers | 2013
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Hespanhol L; Bown O; Cao J; Tomitsch M, 2013, 'Evaluating the effectiveness of audio-visual cues in immersive user interfaces', in Proceedings of the 25th Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference: Augmentation, Application, Innovation, Collaboration, OzCHI 2013, pp. 569 - 572, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2541016.2541094
    Conference Papers | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Martin A, 2012, 'Autonomy in music-generating systems', in AAAI Workshop - Technical Report, pp. 8 - 13
    Conference Papers | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Pasquier P; Eigenfeldt A; Bown O, 2012, 'AAAI Workshop - Technical Report: Preface', in AAAI Workshop - Technical Report
    Conference Papers | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Jones D; Britton S, 2012, 'Surface as structure: The multi-touch controller as map of musical state space', in Proceedings of the 9th Sound and Music Computing Conference, SMC 2012
    Conference Papers | 2012
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Martin A; Jin CT; Carey B; Bown O, 2012, 'Creative experiments using a system for learning high-level performance structure in Ableton live', in Proceedings of the 9th Sound and Music Computing Conference, SMC 2012
    Conference Papers | 2011
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Martin A; Jin CT; Bown O, 2011, 'A toolkit for designing interactive musical agents', in Proceedings of the 23rd Australian Computer-Human Interaction Conference, OzCHI 2011, pp. 194 - 197, http://dx.doi.org/10.1145/2071536.2071567
    Conference Papers | 2011
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; McCormack J, 2011, 'Creative agency: A clearer goal for artificial life in the arts', in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 254 - 261, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-21314-4_32
    Conference Papers | 2011
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; McCormack J; Kowaliw T, 2011, 'Ecosystemic methods for creative domains: Niche construction and boundary formation', in IEEE SSCI 2011 - Symposium Series on Computational Intelligence - IEEE ALIFE 2011: 2011 IEEE Symposium on Artificial Life, pp. 132 - 139, http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/ALIFE.2011.5954651
    Conference Papers | 2010
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Young M; Bown O, 2010, 'Clap-along: A negotiation strategy for creative musical interaction with computational systems', in Proceedings of the International Conference on Computational Creativity, ICCC-10, pp. 215 - 222
    Conference Papers | 2009
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    McCormack J; Bown O, 2009, 'Life's what you make: Niche construction and evolutionary art', in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 528 - 537, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-642-01129-0_59
    Conference Papers | 2009
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2009, 'A framework for ecosystem-based generative music', in Proceedings of the 6th Sound and Music Computing Conference, SMC 2009, pp. 195 - 200
    Conference Papers | 2009
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O, 2009, 'Ecosystem models for real-time generative music: A methodology and framework', in Proceedings of the 2009 International Computer Music Conference, ICMC 2009, pp. 537 - 540
    Conference Papers | 2007
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Wiggins GA, 2007, 'On the meaning of life (in artificial life approaches to music)', in Proceedings of the 4th International Joint Workshop on Computational Creativity, pp. 65 - 71
    Conference Papers | 2006
    Associate Professor Oliver Bown
    Bown O; Lexer S, 2006, 'Continuous-time recurrent neural networks for generative and interactive musical performance', in Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), pp. 652 - 663, http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/11732242_62

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