It is important that Australia leads the world in ecologically sustainable development, given our resources, education and understanding of threats to ecosystems from anthropogenic developments. This includes the important role of identification and mitigation of threats to biodiversity and ecosystem services, while improving efficiency of agricultural production. The EPBC Act was established to ensure that threats to nationally and internationally important biodiversity values, including ecosystems, could be protected through rigorous assessment processes. The role of the Commonwealth Government is critical in terms of assessing matters of national and international environmental importance.