Associate Professor Noel Whitaker

Associate Professor Noel Whitaker

Honorary Associate Professor
School of Biotech & Biomolecular Science

Research Contribution

I have established three primary research areas. 1) Identification of viruses which may be involved in hormonally responsive cancer (including breast and prostate), 2) Role of exosomes in virus associated cancer and 3) Threshold concepts in biology education.

I completed my MSc (Med) (1992) and PhD (1996) in the laboratory of Roger Reddel (Childrens Medical Research Institute). While working as a Postdoctoral fellow (1995 – 2000) in the laboratory of Harald zur Hausen (German Cancer Research Centre. Nobel Laureate 2008) and then with Martin Scheffner (University of Konstanz, Germany), I focused on establishing the role (and mechanisms) of high risk Human Papillomavirus (HPV) E6 transformation protein in the immortalisation and eventual carcinogenic transformation of human cells. Since establishing my laboratory at UNSW (2000 – current), my focus has now expanded to establishing a role for viruses in a number of different human cancers.

1. Involvement of viruses in hormonally affected cancers In collaboration with Jim Lawson, Warick Delprado (Douglass Hanly, Moir Pathology), Laurence Gluch (Strathfield Breast Centre), Matthew Orde (Glebe Dept Forensic Pathology) and Michael Pawlita (German Cancer Research Centre, Germany), we have established our group as a leader in the identification of viruses which may be involved in human cancers, with a particular emphasis on Breast and Prostate cancer. We have been successful in obtaining a large number of breast and prostate cancer (and normal control) specimens (fresh and fixed). We are currently screening these specimens with published and novel PCR primers to confirm or refute evidence that MMTV, HPV, CMV and EBV may be involved in these cancers.

Although it is generally accepted that viruses are commonly involved in animal cancers, researchers working with human cancers (of these types) are sceptical that viruses play a causative role. A small number of laboratories around the world, including our own, have reported extremely important supportive evidence for the role of viruses in these (breast and prostate) cancers. A key publication from my laboratory demonstrating that HPV is present in breast cancer while being absent in normal surrounding breast tissue (Figure 1. From Heng et al, 2009) supports a role for HPV in breast cancer. This, and the fact that HPV is readily able to transform milk epithelial cells in vitro, strongly suggests that HPV is a candidate virus for involvement in human breast cancer. In addition, we have recently demonstrated that human breast cancer and mouse mammary cancer are histologically remarkably similar (Lawson et al., 2006), and evidence that MMTV is present in human breast cancer and not the normal breast tissue (Figure 2. From Lawson et al., 2010).

We are also collaborating with a number of labs overseas (e.g. Beatrice Pogo in New York and Walter Guenzberg in Vienna) to push this project along. In fact, after a lot of hard work and negotiating, we now have one of the largest sources of breast and prostate cancer specimen collections in the country which puts us in a unique and strong position.

2. Role of exosomes in virally associated cancers

We have recently deveoped a projec to investigate the hypothesis that virus-containing cancer cells transform surrounding cells via the action of exosomes

Cancer is the result of changes to cellular functions which are inherited by the daughter cells. In breast cancer, there is a strong hereditary component with mutation of BRCA1 and BRCA2 being associated with ~45% of familial breast cancer. However, only 5% of breast cancer is attributed to mutations, leaving much of the heritability of cancer unexplained.

Coincidentally, recent evidence suggests a much larger role for viruses and, epigenetic changes , some of which may be instilled by long non-coding RNAs, in a significant number of diseases, including cancer. In addition, it is now clear large ncRNAs are all packaged in exosomes. Exosomes, once released from the cell, are able to deliver their payload to neighbouring and distant cells, affecting the recipient cells growth and behaviour.

Can viruses, such as HPV, be involved in breast cancerigenesis while not being present in all cells of a cancer? The potential mechanisms have been established, this project tests if they can actually occur. In addition, disruption of exosome transmission will confirm their action and identify a new class of exosome targeted therapy.

3. Using threshold concepts to generate understanding of teaching and learning biology ( The notion of threshold concepts is a recent development in the study of student learning. Threshold concepts are central to the mastery of a specific discipline, and are those concepts which many students find difficult to learn and teachers find difficult to teach (Meyer & Land 2003, 2005). Once understood, threshold concepts allow passage through a portal or conceptual gateway to a previously inaccessible way of thinking about something. These conceptual gateways or thresholds are characterised as being transformative, irreversible and integrative (Meyer & Land, 2005). This transformed internal view is typified by a cognitive and ontological shift, often accompanied by an extension of the use of language (Meyer & Land, 2005). These ideas resonate strongly with academics in a range of discipline areas (Davies & Mangan, 2005; Taylor, 2006) and have stimulated vigorous discussion on approaches to teaching and student learning

This was an ALTC funded project carried out in collaboration with Dr Louise Lutze-Mann, A/Prof Chris Hughes, Dr Charlotte Taylor (USyd), A/Prof Pauline Ross (UWS) and Dr Vicky Tzioumis (USyd). The project was designed to improve student understanding of biology through the use of novel research into the definition of a threshold concept in biology, enabling the development of teaching that is appropriate for diverse learning strategies. At the same time, the process of strategic change in approaches to teaching biology in Australian universities was modelled through extensive discussion and consultation with biology teachers. The project was enhanced and supported by workshops and regular communications with a national biology teaching network.

We identified a web of threshold concepts (, developed interventions addressing threshold concepts across the undergraduate experience, at three universities, and generated a dynamic community of biologists interested in curriculum development using this powerful heuristic.

Professional Experience

  • 1985-1986: Research Assistant, Department of Virology, Prince Henry Hospital
  • 1986-1988: Secondary School Science Teacher (Physics, Science, Maths), NSW Dept. Education (Ashfield Boys High School)
  • 1988-1992: Research Assistant, Cancer Research Group, The Children's Medical Research Foundation (R.R. Reddel)
  • 1995-1999: Postdoctoral Research Fellow, German Cancer Centre (Harald zur Hausen)
  • 1999-2000: Postdoctoral Research Fellow, Biochemistry, University of Cologne (Martin Scheffner)
  • 2000-2007: Lecturer, School of BABS, UNSW
  • 2003-2008:Associate Dean (Education), Faculty of Science, UNSW
  • 2009-2009: Acting Associate Dean (UG Programs), UNSW
  • 2007-2010: Senior Lecturer, School of BABS, UNSW
  • 2011-present: Associate Professor, Deputy Head of School, Director of Teaching, School of BABS, UNSW

Honours & Awards

  • NSW Department of Education Teaching Certificate, 1988
  • ITET Fellowship, 2002
  • Carrick Citation for Outstanding Contribution to Student Learning, 2006
  • UNSW, Faculty of Science Staff Excellence Award (Teaching Excellence), 2008

Professional activities

  • Established and chaired UNSW Faculty of Science Learning and Teaching Interest Group (2002 – 2008)
  • Established and chaired the Sydney-basin Network of University Educators (2003 – 2008)
  • Convened the SNUSE Forum “From Teaching Practise to Scholarly Publishing” 2006
  • Co-convenor iSSOTL Sydney July 2007
  • Co-convenor Education symposium at Combio Sydney, September 2007
  • Committee member Australian Society for Medical Research (ASMR) 2009 - present
  • Organisation committee for Thresholds meeting (UNSW 2010)
  • Member of Reference Group fo the UNSW Promoting Excellence Initiative (ALTC funded), 2009
  • Co-organiser 3rd Biennial Threshold Concepts Symposium. July 2010. UNSW

Professional Memberships

  • Australian Society for Medical Research (ASMR)
  • American Association of Cancer Researchers (AACR)
  • International Society for the Scholarship of Teaching and Learning (iSSOTL)
(+61 2) 9385 2041
Room: 3108, Biological Sciences South (E26)
  • Journal articles | 2023
    Chakraborti S; Karmakar A; Guha R; Ngan C; Kumar Das R; Whitaker N, 2023, 'Induction of epithelial to mesenchymal transition in HPV16 E6/E7 oncogene transfected C33A cell line', Tissue and Cell, 82,
    Journal articles | 2018
    Lawson JS; Mazzanti C; Civita P; Menicagli M; Ngan CC; Whitaker NJ; Hochman J; Braitbard O; Yosufi B; Glenn WK, 2018, 'Association of mouse mammary tumor virus with human breast cancer: Histology, immunohistochemistry and polymerase chain reaction analyses', Frontiers in Oncology, 8,
    Journal articles | 2017
    Glenn WK; Ngan CC; Amos TG; Edwards RJ; Swift J; Lutze-Mann L; Shang F; Whitaker NJ; Lawson JS, 2017, 'High risk human papilloma viruses (HPVs) are present in benign prostate tissues before development of HPV associated prostate cancer', INFECTIOUS AGENTS AND CANCER, 12,
    Journal articles | 2017
    Nartey T; Mazzanti CM; Melana S; Glenn WK; Bevilacqua G; Holland JF; Whitaker NJ; Lawson JS; Pogo BGT, 2017, 'Erratum to: Mouse mammary tumor-like virus (MMTV) is present in human breast tissue before development of virally associated breast cancer (vol 12, pg 1, 2017)', INFECTIOUS AGENTS AND CANCER, 12,
    Journal articles | 2017
    Nartey T; Mazzanti CM; Melana S; Glenn WK; Bevilacqua G; Holland JF; Whitaker NJ; Lawson JS; Pogo BGT, 2017, 'Mouse mammary tumor-like virus (MMTV) is present in human breast tissue before development of virally associated breast cancer', Infectious Agents and Cancer, 12, pp. 1 - 7,
    Journal articles | 2016
    Hewson C; Capraro D; Burdach J; Whitaker N; Morris KV, 2016, 'Extracellular vesicle associated long non-coding RNAs functionally enhance cell viability', Non-coding RNA Research, 1, pp. 3 - 11,
    Journal articles | 2016
    Lawson JS; Glenn WK; Salyakina D; Clay R; Delprado W; Cheerala B; Tran DD; Ngan CC; Miyauchi S; Karim M; Antonsson A; Whitaker NJ, 2016, 'Human papilloma virus identification in breast cancer patients with previous cervical neoplasia', Frontiers in Oncology, 5,
    Journal articles | 2016
    Lawson JS; Glenn WK; Whitaker NJ, 2016, 'Human papilloma viruses and breast cancer - assessment of causality', Frontiers in Oncology, 7,
    Journal articles | 2015
    Lawson JS; Glenn WK; Salyakina D; Delprado W; Clay R; Antonsson A; Heng B; Miyauchi S; Tran DD; Ngan CC; Lutze-Mann L; Whitaker NJ, 2015, 'Human Papilloma Viruses and Breast Cancer.', Front Oncol, 5, pp. 277,
    Journal articles | 2015
    Lawson JS; Glenn WK; Tran DD; Ngan CC; Duflou JA; Whitaker NJ, 2015, 'Identification of Human Papilloma Viruses in Atheromatous Coronary Artery Disease', Frontiers in Cardiovascular Medicine, 2, pp. 17,
    Journal articles | 2015
    Ngan C; Lawson JS; Clay R; Delprado W; Whitaker NJ; Glenn WK, 2015, 'Early human Papilloma virus (HPV) Oncogenic influences in breast cancer', Breast Cancer: Basic and Clinical Research, 2015, pp. 93 - 97,
    Journal articles | 2013
    Woods M; Chow S; Heng B; Glenn W; Whitaker N; Waring D; Iwasenko J; Rawlinson W; Coroneo MT; Wakefield D; Di Girolamo N, 2013, 'Detecting human papillomavirus in ocular surface diseases', Investigative Ophthalmology and Visual Science, 54, pp. 8069 - 8078,
    Journal articles | 2012
    Glenn W; Heng B; Delprado WJ; Iacopetta BJ; Whitaker NJ; Lawson JS, 2012, 'Epstein-Barr virus, human papillomavirus and mouse mammary tumour virus as multiple viruses in breast cancer', PLoS ONE, 7, pp. 1 - 10,
    Journal articles | 2012
    Glenn W; Whitaker NJ; Lawson JS, 2012, 'High risk human papillomavirus and Epstein-Barr virus in human breast milk', BMC Research Notes, 5, pp. 477,
    Journal articles | 2012
    Whitaker NJ; Glenn W; Sahrudin A; Orde M; Delprado WJ; Lawson JS, 2012, 'Human papillomavirus and Epstein Barr virus in prostate cancer: Koilocytes indicate potential oncogenic influences of human papillomavirus in prostate cancer', Prostate, 73, pp. 236 - 241,
    Journal articles | 2010
    Glenn W; Heng B; Whitaker NJ; Lawson JS, 2010, 'Reply: Koilocytes indicate a role for human papilloma virus in breast cancer', British Journal of Cancer, 102, pp. 788 - 788,
    Journal articles | 2010
    Glenn WK; Salmons B; Lawson JS; Whitaker NJ, 2010, 'Mouse mammary tumor-like virus and human breast cancer', Breast Cancer Research and Treatment, 123, pp. 907,
    Journal articles | 2010
    Heng B; Glenn W; Lee JHK; Tan XV; Lawson JS; Whitaker NJ; Glenn W, 2010, 'Reply to letter to the editor: Is HPV-18 present in human breast cancer cell lines?', British Journal of Cancer, 102, pp. 1551 - 1552,
    Journal articles | 2010
    Heng B; Glenn WK; Lee JHK; Tan XV; Lawson JS; Whitaker NJ, 2010, 'Reply to Letter to the Editor: Is HPV-18 present in human breast cancer cell lines', British Journal of Cancer, 102, pp. 1551 - 1552,
    Journal articles | 2010
    Lawson JS; Glenn W; Whitaker NJ, 2010, 'Breast cancer as an infectious disease', Womens Health, 6, pp. 5 - 8,
    Journal articles | 2010
    Lawson JS; Glenn WK; Salmons B; Ye Y; Heng B; Moody P; Johal H; Rawlinson WD; Delprado W; Lutze-Mann L; Whitaker NJ, 2010, 'Mouse mammary tumor virus-like sequences in human breast cancer', Cancer research, 70, pp. 3576 - 3585,
    Journal articles | 2010
    Ross P; Ross P; Tzioumis ; Hughes C; Kofod MG; Lutze-Mann L; Whitaker NJ, 2010, 'Threshold Concepts in Learning Biology and Evolution', Biology International, 47, pp. 47 - 54,
    Journal articles | 2010
    Wiklund ED; Catts VS; Catts SV; Ng TF; Whitaker NJ; Brown AJ; Lutze-Mann L, 2010, 'Cytotoxic effects of antipsychotic drugs implicate cholesterol homeostasis as a novel chemotherapeutic target.', International Journal of Cancer, 126, pp. 28 - 40,
    Journal articles | 2009
    Heng B; Glenn W; Ye Y; Tran B; Delprado W; Lutze-Mann L; Whitaker NJ; Lawson JS, 2009, 'Human papilloma virus is associated with breast cancer', British Journal of Cancer, 101, pp. 1345 - 1350,
    Journal articles | 2009
    Lawson JS; Glenn W; Heng B; Ye Y; Tran B; Lutze-Mann L; Whitaker NJ, 2009, 'Koilocytes indicate a role for human papilloma virus in breast cancer', British Journal of Cancer, 101, pp. 1351 - 1356,
    Journal articles | 2009
    Orde M; Whitaker NJ; Lawson JS, 2009, 'High prevalence of prostatic neoplasia in Australian Men', Pathology, 41, pp. 433 - 435,
    Journal articles | 2008
    Lawson JA; Glenn W; Whitaker NJ, 2008, 'Reply: Breast cancer, human papilloma virus and sexual activities', British Journal of Cancer, 98, pp. 510 - 511,
    Journal articles | 2008
    Mok M; Lawson JA; Iacopetta BJ; Whitaker NJ, 2008, 'Mouse mammary tumor virus-like env sequences in human breast cancer', International Journal of Cancer, 122, pp. 2864 - 2870,
    Journal articles | 2007
    Gandhi MK; Wilkie GM; Dua U; Mollee PN; Grimmett K; Williams T; Whitaker N; Gill D; Crawford DH, 2007, 'Immunity, homing and efficacy of allogeneic adoptive immunotherapy for posttransplant lymphoproliferative disorders', American Journal of Transplantation, 7, pp. 1293 - 1299,
    Journal articles | 2007
    Glenn W; Lawson JS; Whitaker NJ, 2007, 'Mouse mammary tumour-like virus gene sequences and specific breast cancer morphology', Journal of Clinical Pathology, 60, pp. 1071 - 1071,
    Journal articles | 2007
    Lawson JS; Heads J; Glenn W; Whitaker NJ, 2007, 'Breastfeeding, breast milk and viruses', BMC Women's Health, 7, pp. 17 - 17,
    Journal articles | 2006
    Kan CY; Iacopetta BJ; Lawson JS; Whitaker NJ, 2006, 'Human papilloma virus and breast cancer - Reply', British Journal of Cancer, 94, pp. 339 - 339,
    Journal articles | 2006
    Kan CY; Iacopetta BJ; Lawson JS; Whitaker NJ, 2006, 'Reply: Human papilloma virus and breast cancer [2]', British Journal of Cancer, 94, pp. 339,
    Journal articles | 2006
    Lawson JS; Guenzburg W; Whitaker NJ, 2006, 'Viruses and human breast cancer', Future Microbiology, 1, pp. 33 - 51,
    Journal articles | 2006
    Lawson JS; Kan C; Iacopetta BJ; Whitaker NJ, 2006, 'Are some breast cancers sexually transmitted?', British Journal of Cancer, 95, pp. 1708 - 1708,
    Journal articles | 2006
    Lawson JS; Tran D; Carpenter E; Ford C; Rawlinson WD; Whitaker NJ; Delprado W, 2006, 'Presence of mouse mammary tumour-like virus gene sequences may be associated with morphology of specific human breast cancer', Journal of Clinical Pathology, 59, pp. 1287 - 1292,
    Journal articles | 2006
    Roesch-Ely M; Steinberg T; Bosch FX; Mussig E; Whitaker NJ; Weist T; Kohl A; Komposch G; Tomakidi P, 2006, 'Organotypic co-cultures allow for immortalized human gingival kertinocytes to reconstitute a gingival epithelial phenotype in vitro', Differentiation, 74, pp. 622 - 637,
    Journal articles | 2005
    Kan CY; Iacopetta BJ; Lawson JS; Whitaker NJ, 2005, 'Identification of human papillomavirus DNA gene sequences in human breast cancer', British Journal of Cancer, 93, pp. 946 - 948,
    Journal articles | 2004
    Whitaker NJ; Takayama KM, 2004, 'Computer-aided visualisation in teaching genomics and bioinformatics', Federation of American Societies for Experimantal Biology Journal, 18, pp. C6 - C7
    Journal articles | 2003
    Scheffner M; Whitaker NJ, 2003, 'Human papillomavirus-induced carcinogenesis and the ubiquitin-proteasome system', Seminars in Cancer Biology, 13, pp. 59 - 67,
    Journal articles | 2002
    Whitaker NJ; Aguilar-Lemarroy A; Gariglio P; Eichhorst S; zur Hausen H; Krammer P; Rosl F, 2002, 'Restoration of p53 expression sensitizes human papillomavirus type 16 immortalized human keratinocytes to CD95-mediated apoptosis', Oncogene, 21, pp. 165 - 175,
    Journal articles | 2001
    Aguilar-Lemarroy A; Kirchhoff S; Whitaker N; Gariglio P; Hausen HZ; Krammer PH; Rösl F, 2001, 'Differential sensitivity of human papillomavirus type 16+ and type 18+ cervical carcinoma cells to CD95-mediated apoptosis', International Journal of Cancer, 93, pp. 823 - 831,
    Journal articles | 2001
    Hengstermann A; Linares LK; Ciechanover A; Whitaker NJ; Scheffner M, 2001, 'Complete switch from Mdm2 to human papillomavirus E6-mediated degradation of p53 in cervical cancer cells', Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 98, pp. 1218 - 1223,
    Journal articles | 2001
    Scheffner M; Whitaker NJ, 2001, 'Cell biology: Proteolytic relay comes to an end', Nature, 410, pp. 882 - 885,
    Journal articles | 2001
    Scheffner M; Whitaker NJ, 2001, 'Proteolytic relay comes to an end', Nature, pp. 882 - 883
    Journal articles | 2000
    Blasko I; Wagner M; Whitaker N; Grubeck-Loebenstein B; Jansen-Dürr P, 2000, 'The amyloid β peptide Aβ (25-35) induces apoptosis independent of p53', FEBS Letters, 470, pp. 221 - 225,
    Journal articles | 2000
    Hasskarl J; Butz K; Whitaker N; Ullmann A; Dürst M; Hoppe-Seyler F, 2000, 'Differential cell cycle response of nontumorigenic and tumorigenic human papillomavirus-positive keratinocytes towards transforming growth factor-β1', Journal of Molecular Medicine, 78, pp. 94 - 101,
    Journal articles | 1999
    Butz K; Whitaker N; Denk C; Ullmann A; Geisen C; Hoppe-Seyler F, 1999, 'Induction of the p53-target gene GADD45 in HPV-positive cancer cells', Oncogene, 18, pp. 2381 - 2386,
    Journal articles | 1998
    Hengstermann A; Whitaker NJ; Zimmer D; Zentgraf H; Scheffner M, 1998, 'Characterization of sequence elements involved in p53 stability regulation reveals cell type dependence for p53 degradation', Oncogene, 17, pp. 2933 - 2940,
    Journal articles | 1998
    Rothmann T; Hengstermann A; Whitaker NJ; Scheffner M; Zur Hausen H, 1998, 'Replication of ONYX-015, a potential anticancer adenovirus, is independent of p53 status in tumor cells', Journal of Virology, 72, pp. 9470 - 9478,
    Journal articles | 1995
    Reddel RR; Bryan TM; Rogan EM; Noble JR; Maclean K; Whitaker NJ; Chang AC, 1995, 'Genetic changes during immortalization of human cells', Radiation Oncology Investigations, 3, pp. 299 - 306,
    Journal articles | 1995
    Reedel RR; De Silva R; Duncan EL; Rogan EM; Whitaker NJ; Zahra DG; Ke Y; McMenamin MG; Gerwin BI; Harris CC, 1995, 'Sv40‐induced immortalization and ras‐transformation of human bronchial epithelial cells', International Journal of Cancer, 61, pp. 199 - 205,
    Journal articles | 1995
    Whitaker NJ; Bryan TM; Bonnefin P; Chang ACM; Musgrove EA; Braithwaite AW; Reddel RR, 1995, 'Involvement of RB-1, p53, p16(INK4) and telomerase in immortalisation of human cells', Oncogene, 11, pp. 971 - 976
    Journal articles | 1994
    De Silva R; Whitaker NJ; Rogan EM; Reddel RR, 1994, 'HPV-16 E6 and E7 genes, like SV40 early region genes, are insufficient for immortalization of human mesothelial and bronchial epithelial cells', Experimental Cell Research, 213, pp. 418 - 427,
    Journal articles | 1994
    Maclean K; Rogan EM; Whitaker NJ; Chang ACM; Rowe PB; Dalla-Pozza L; Symonds G; Reddel RR, 1994, 'In vitro transformation of Li-Fraumeni syndrome fibroblasts by SV40 large T antigen mutants', Oncogene, 9, pp. 719 - 725
    Journal articles | 1993
    Duncan EL; Whitaker NJ; Moy EL; Reddel RR, 1993, 'Assignment of SV40-immortalized cells to more than one complementation group for immortalization', Experimental Cell Research, 205, pp. 337 - 344,
    Journal articles | 1992
    Whitaker NJ; Kidston EL; Reddel RR, 1992, 'Finite life span of hybrids formed by fusion of different Simian virus 40-immortalized human cell lines', Journal of Virology, 66, pp. 1202 - 1206,
  • Conference Papers | 2013
    Wijenayake N; Fernandez HR; Catts VS; Whitaker NJ; Lutze-Mann LH, 2013, 'Efficacy and potential mechanisms of psychotropic drugs and statins in the treatment of glioblastoma', in CANCER RESEARCH, AMER ASSOC CANCER RESEARCH, DC, Washington, presented at 104th Annual Meeting of the American-Association-for-Cancer-Research (AACR), DC, Washington, 06 April 2013 - 10 April 2013,
    Conference Papers | 2008
    Kofod MG; Quinnell R; Rifkin WD; Whitaker NJ, 2008, 'Is tutor training worth it? Acknowledging conflicting agenda', in Higher Education Research and Development, HERDSA, Kensington, NSW, presented at Higher Education Research & Development
    Conference Papers | 2008
    Quinnell R; Tay C-E; Kofod MG; Whitaker NJ; Cox J, 2008, 'Science without Borders: Students’ perceptions of international exchange', in UniServe Science Symposium Proceedings: Visualisation and Concept Development, Uniserve Science 2008 Symposium on Visualisation and Concept Development, University of Sydney, Australia, presented at Uniserve Science 2008 Symposium on Visualisation and Concept Development, University of Sydney, Australia, 02 October 2008 - 03 October 2008,
    Conference Papers | 2005
    Cranney J; Kofod MG; Huon GF; Jensen L; Levin K; McAlpine I; Whitaker NJ, 2005, 'Portfolio tools: learning and teaching strategies to facilitate development of graduate attributes', in Blended Learning in Science Teaching and Learning, Blended Learning in Science Teaching and Learning, University of Sydney, Sydney, presented at Blended Learning in Science Teaching and Learning, University of Sydney, Sydney, 30 September 2005