We have a suite of electron spin resonance (ESR) spectrometers employed for conventional, pulsed and electronically detected ESR. 

The suite of ESR spectrometers provides the following measurement configurations:  

  • conventional and pulsed ESR employing an electromagnet (0 – 1.6 T) and a liquid helium flow cryostat (4.2 – 300 K) 

  • pulsed ESR employing a 3 He-4 He dilution refrigerator (down to 50 mK) and a superconducting magnet 

  • electrically detected magnetic resonance with the capability of sensing the resonance of fewer than a hundred phosphorus impurity atoms in a silicon wafer.